Enviado por TM en Abril 3, 2008 - 01:37.
Fecha de Lanzamiento: Diciembre 17, 1989
Creado por: Matt Groening
País de origen: Estados Unidos de América
Género: Animación | Comedia | Familia
Episodios / Capítulos: 420 episodes in 19 seasons
Protagonistas: Bart Simpson | Homer Simpson | Lisa Simpson | Maggie Simpson | Marge Simpson
Idioma: English (Original language)
Relación de Aspecto: 1.33:1
Sonido: Dolby | Stereo
Certificación: Argentina:Atp | Australia:G | Australia:M | Australia:PG | Brazil:12 | Brazil:Livre | Canada:14A | Canada:G | Canada:PG | China:(Banned) | Denmark:11 | Finland:K-12 | Finland:K-7 | Finland:K-8 | Germany:12 | Ireland:12 | Ireland:G | Ireland:PG | Italy:T | Japan:U | Mexico:A | Netherlands:AL | Portugal:M/12 | Portugal:M/6 | Singapore:NC-16 | South Korea:15 | Spain:7 | UK:12 | UK:PG | UK:U | USA:TV-14 | USA:TV-G
Locaciones de Rodaje: Sherman Oaks; Los Angeles; California; USA
Compañía / Publicador: 20th Century Fox Television
Canal / Emisora: Fox
Duración: 22-24 minutes
Palabras clave de la trama: Bully | Elementary School | Family Relationship | House | Human Relationship | Husband Wife Relationship | Multiple Actors For One Character | Nuclear Energy Plant. Student Principal Relationship | Sitcom | Springfield | Tavern | Teacher Student Relationship | Yellow
The Simpsons is the longest running prime time animated series in history; created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
The Simpsons is nationally as well as internationally famous and over the years special guests have included The Beatles, Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, Bob Hope, Tom Jones, Hugh Hefner, Bette Midler, Kim Basinger, Jerry Springer, Blink 182, Tony Hawk, Mel Gibson, Stephen Hawking and many many more.
The series is about an 'average' American family, parents Marge and Homer, their children, Bart, Lisa and Maggie and their pets Snowball and Santa’s Little Helper. They live in a make-believe average American town called Springfield.
Marge and Homer are parents like any other who try to provide parental control over their children. Homer tends to be a little on the childish side himself but with that, Bart’s trouble making, Lisa’s genius and Maggie’s quiet humour it all adds up to a lot of fun and a lot of comedy, which is probably what makes it so popular.
Irreverence is one of the show's keys. In fact, some episodes take jabs at Fox, such as in one opening sequence when Bart sees the Fox logo, begins stomping on it and the family joins in.
The Simpsons show is also in the Guinness Book of Records for the longest running prime time animated series, and also for the most celebrities featured in an animated series.
Not only does it have the family, but it has probably more than 100 secondary characters. There are few if not sitcoms that have more than 100 secondary characters, like Burns and Smithers and Chief Wiggums and the Comic Book Guy and Sideshow Mel. Everyone one of them has his own individual quirks, and they allow the series to mine more material.
The show has such a place in culture that Homer’s phrase "D’oh" made it into the 2001 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. The Simpsons also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Trama y Formato:
The Simpsons is the longest-running prime-time animated show on TV. The show uses the standard setup of a situational comedy or "sitcom" and centers its episodes on the life of a typical American family in the typical American town of Springfield (its location is unknown)
The series cover a vast range of topics of modern society with an acid humour approach. They include a range that goes from religious and political issues to environmental and educational ones; to mention just a few. The show is so influential in various aspects of society that it gave raise to different feedbacks; from imposing new expressions to our language to negative reactions of religious and political members who find many aspects of the show to contradict several of their beliefs of for considering the show as a poor model for children. There was an incident in 1992 when the then US president George H. Bush expressed "We're going to strengthen the American family to make them more like the Waltons and less like the Simpsons".
By having Homer work in a nuclear power plant, the show can comment on the state of the environment. Through Bart and Lisa's days at Springfield Elementary School, the show's writers illustrate pressing or controversial issues in the field of education. The town features a vast array of media channels—from kids' television programming to local news, which enables the producers to make jokes about themselves and the entertainment industry.
Some commentators say the show is political in nature and susceptible to a left-wing bias. Al Jean admitted in an interview that "We are of liberal bent." The writers often evince an appreciation for progressive ideals, but the show makes jokes across the political spectrum. The show portrays government and large corporations as callous entities that take advantage of the common worker. Thus, the writers often portray authority figures in an unflattering or negative light. In The Simpsons, politicians are corrupt, ministers such as Reverend Lovejoy are indifferent to churchgoers, and the local police force is incompetent. Religion also figures as a recurring theme. In times of crisis, the family often turns to God, and the show has dealt with most of the major religions.
Matt Groening once mentioned: "The Simpsons is my memories of my family and my friends' families, combined with all the TV sitcoms I watched growing up: Leave It to Beaver, Ozzie and Harriet. All those bland American sitcoms which I really liked, and still do."
The resemblance ends there. The Simpsons are a working class family - dad Homer works at the local nuclear power plant, mum Marge is a housewife and their son, Bart, is one pip away from delinquency. Those bland 50s sitcoms would never have featured crooked Mayors, or jokes about the President's taste in women.
Historia y Evolución:
Prehistory - The Tracey Ullman shorts
The Simpsons are the brainchild of Matt Groening. He started out as a cartoonist by drawing a weekly comic strip for a set of regional newspapers, called "Life In Hell." They featured a rabbit called Blinky (yes, that's the name of the three-eyed fish in The Simpsons) and detailed the dark side of life. Books of these early cartoons are sold in bookstores.
Then one day, Matt got a call from James L Brooks (now co-producer of The Simpsons). James had seen his comic strip and wanted Matt to do some animation for the Tracey Ullman show - minute long "buffer" cartoons, showing before and after commercials.
The Tracey Ullman Show was a weekly American television variety show, hosted by British comedian and onetime pop singer Tracey Ullman. It debuted on April 5, 1987 as the FOX network's second primetime series (after Married... with Children), and ran until May 26, 1990. The show featured sketch comedy along with many musical numbers.
Matt originally planned to use his Life In Hell characters, however, at the last moment, he realized that doing this would ruin the characters as well as the fact that animating Life in Hell would require the rescinding of publication rights for his life's work, he chose another approach and formulated his version of a dysfunctional family. So he made up some more characters on the spot: The Simpsons. As he was not feeling particularly creative that day, he named them after his only father: Matt's father is called Homer, and his mother is called Margaret (he thought Marge was a funnier name). He also has two sisters called Lisa and Maggie. In the case of Bart, he was modeled after Groening's older brother, Mark; however he substituted "Bart" for Mark. He called the main character Bart, because it is an anagram of 'brat'. He sketched out the original drawings for the family in a matter of minutes while sitting outside James Brooks' office.
Jay Kogen, writer-producer of The Tracey Ullman Show (1987–89) and The Simpsons (1989–93) said in an interview: They really wanted Life in Hell. But Matt was making a good bit of money on mugs and calendars from Life in Hell, and Fox wanted to own the whole thing. He said, "I won't sell you this. But I have this other family, called The Simpsons, that you can have." And then he proceeded to draw something on a napkin that legend has it he just made up on the spot. And they said, "O.K., we'll do that!"
The Simpson family was first aired in shorts format, on April 19, 1987. The shorts are a series of 48 one-minute shorts that ran for three seasons, before the characters spun off into their own half-hour prime time show. The animation and voices of the characters were extremely crappy in comparison with more current Simpsons episodes; and as Matt Groening mentioned during an interview: "I gave the animators my rough sketches... I thought they were going to clean them up a little, but it turns out all they were doing was tracing my drawings."
The stories were written and storyboarded by Matt Groening. The actors who voiced the characters would later reprise their roles in The Simpsons.
Dan Castellaneta performed the voices of Homer Simpson, Abraham Simpson, and Krusty the Clown. Homer's voice sounds different in the shorts compared to most episodes of the half-hour show. Castellaneta had been part of the regular cast of The Tracey Ullman Show and had done some voice over work in Chicago alongside his wife Deb Lacusta. Voices were needed for the shorts, so the producers decided to ask Castellaneta as well as Julie Kavner to voice Homer and Marge rather than hire more actors. Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, and Yeardley Smith performed the voices of Marge Simpson, Bart Simpson, and Lisa Simpson respectively. While most of the characters' personalities are similar to what they are in the series, Lisa is portrayed as a female version of Bart without the intelligent nature that she possesses in the half-hour series.
The animation was produced at Klasky Csupo, (an entertainment production company located in Los Angeles, California founded by artist/producer Arlene Klasky and master animator Gábor Csupó) with Wesley Archer, David Silverman, and Bill Kopp being animators for the first season. After season one it was animated by Archer and Silverman.
Gabor Csupo said in an interview: When Jim Brooks originally saw Matt Groening's drawings on his wall, it was all black-and-white, just the line drawing, no color or anything. And that's how he wanted to do the show. And we said, "You know what? We gonna give you color for the same price." And all of a sudden the eyes lit up and he said, "O.K., you guys are on." The characters were so beautiful but, let's face it, primitively designed that we thought that we could counterbalance that design with shocking colors. That's why we came up with the yellow skin, and the blue hair for Marge. Georgie Peluse was the colorist and the person who decided to make the characters yellow. According to David Silverman; she had a weird, wonderful sense of color design. A really interesting sense of color. As he mentions in an interview: "I think she did that because Bart, Lisa and Maggie had no hairlines, and if you made them flesh-colored it would look very strange. It wouldn't work. To Matt's credit, he looked at it and said, Marge is yellow with blue hair? That's hilarious--let's do it!"
The bumper episodes were amusing snippets of the dysfunctional family's daily life, focusing mostly on the kids being kids, and the grief they caused their parents.
The first short aired was "Good Night". The final short to air was "TV Simpsons", originally airing on May 14, 1989.
Only a few of these shorts have been released on DVD. "Good Night" was included on The Simpsons Season 1 DVD. Five of the shorts were later used in the clip show episode "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular", which was released on the Season 7 DVD. These five shorts were "Good Night", which was featured in its entirety and portions of "The Perfect Crime", "Space Patrol", "World War III", and "Bathtime".
Though critics liked The Tracey Ullman Show, the series wasn't a big hit; but, then, neither was much else on the network. Still, Barry Diller (former chairman and C.E.O., Fox), saw that the big-three networks were getting old and tired—they were losing viewers to cable and independent networks—and he was eager to experiment. In early 1988, he launched one of television's first reality programs, America's Most Wanted (Cops would follow in 1989), while taking the sitcom in lewd new directions with Married … with Children. When Brooks approached him with the idea of making The Simpsons into its own series, Diller eventually bit, thinking that the show might be, as he later put it, "the one that can crack the slab for us."
So in 1989, Fox commissioned a whole series: 13 full-length episodes. The animation was still a little crude, but the show was a huge hit nonetheless.
Tracey Ullman would later file a lawsuit, claiming that her show was the source of The Simpsons success and therefore should receive a share of the show's profit. She wanted a share of The Simpsons' merchandising and gross profits and believed she was entitled to $2.5 million of Fox's estimated $50 million in 1992. The Fox network had paid her $58,000 in royalties for The Simpsons as well as $3 million for the 3 1/2 seasons her show was on the air. Eventually the courts ruled in favor of the network.
The Simpsons - Season 1
In 1989, a team of production companies adapted The Simpsons into a half-hour series for the Fox Broadcasting Company. They continued working with the Klasky Csupo animation house. Jim Brooks negotiated a provision in the contract with the Fox network that prevented Fox from interfering with the show's content.
FOX was very nervous about the show because they were unsure that they could sustain the audience's attention for the duration of the episode. They proposed that they should do three 7 minute shorts per episode and four specials until the audience adjusted. In the end, they proposed FOX for 13 full-length episodes; and the deal was done.
The series was originally set to debut in November of 1989 with the episode "Some Enchanted Evening" (13th and final episode of the first season), which was meant to introduce the main characters. However, during the first screening of the episode, the producers discovered that the animation was so appalling that 70% of the episode needed to be redone.
One problem was that much of the actual work would have to be farmed out to studios in Korea, which were used to animating Transformers and not sophisticated comedy shows. Another was that most of the staff—including Brooks and Groening—had little experience with animation. According to Michael Mendel, when the first show came back from Korea it was a complete disaster. It was unairable.
So, The producers considered to cancel the series if the next episode "Bart the Genius" turned out as bad, but it only suffered from easily fixable problems. Finally the producers convinced Fox to move the debut to December 17, and aired "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" as the first episode of the series. It must be pointed out that due to the aforementioned animation problems, this episode which was originally the eighth episode produced for season one; was finally aired as the first of the series; that's why Santa's Little Helper is missing during the first half of the season that followed. It's also known as "The Simpsons Christmas Special". Ironically "Some Enchanted Evening" was aired as the season finale.
Barry Diller said that when they screened the first episode, for a number of Fox executives, they all went down to Gracie Films bungalow over at The Simpsons, and not a single person in the room was laughing, except for him and Jim Brooks. However they put it on, and it became more and more successful every week.
The problem with the animation from the producers' point-of-view was that it did not go by a distinct style envisioned for the show. At the time there were only a few choices for animation style. Usually, they would either follow the style of Disney, Warner Brothers or Hanna-Barbera. Disney and Warner Brothers cartoons had a universe that was bendy and the characters seemed to be made of rubber. The producers wanted a realistic environment in which the characters and objects could not do anything that was not possible in the real world. One example with the early animation being cartoonish was that the doors behaved liked rubber when slammed. The style of Hanna-Barbera featured the use of cartoon sounds, which they did not want either.
Directorial duties for the retakes were handed from Kent Butterworth to David Silverman, who already had considerable experience directing the shorts.
The episode, being the first to air, lacked the now famous opening sequence which was later added in the second episode when Groening thought of the idea of a longer opening sequence resulting in less animation.
David Silverman directed this episode, although Rich Moore storyboarded it and designed Flanders. In this episode, Barney had yellow hair which was the same color as his skin, but that was later dropped because of the belief that only the Simpson family should have such hair.
The second episode to be aired was "Bart the Genius" and as mentioned before it represented a turning point for the future of the show, as it was also the second episode produced, directly after the disastrous animation of "Some Enchanted Evening," so, the future of the series depended on how the animation turned out on this episode. Fortunately, thing went fine, the animation proved to be more acceptable, and the show went forward.
It was the first episode written by Jon Vitti and the first directed by David Silverman.
The episode was the first to feature the series' full title sequence, including the chalkboard gag and couch gag. Matt Groening developed the lengthy sequence in order to cut down on the animation necessary for each episode, but devised the two gags as compensation for the repeated material each week. However it must me mentioned that title sequences of such length were uncommon by that time. Later, as the finished episodes became longer, the production team were reluctant to cut the stories in order to allow for the long title sequence, so shorter versions of it were developed. The episode also introduced the characters Martin Prince and Edna Krabappel. It was also the first episode to use of Bart's catchphrase "Eat my shorts."
There were a few problems with the finished animation for this second episode. The banana in the opening scene was colored incorrectly, as the Korean animators were unfamiliar with the fruit, and the final bathtub scene was particularly problematic, including issues with lip synchronization. Nevertheless, the broadcasted episode was the best of several attempts.
The first season won one Emmy Award, and received four additional nominations. Although television shows are limited to one episode a category, "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" was considered a separate special, and was nominated alongside "Life on the Fast Lane" for Outstanding Animated Program; "Life on the Fast Lane" won the award. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" was also nominated for "Outstanding Editing in a Miniseries or Special", while "The Call of the Simpsons" was nominated for "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special". The main theme song, composed by Danny Elfman, was nominated for "Outstanding Achievement in Main Title Theme Music"
The show hit a ratings high at the end of its first season, in the spring of 1990, cracking the Top 10 (the only Fox show to do so that year). Fox struck a deal with Mattel, and talking Bart Simpson dolls began disappearing from department-store shelves. Bart T-shirts were selling at the rate of a million per day in North America. His catchphrases, such as "Underachiever and proud of it" and "Don't have a cow, man," became staples of early-90s lexicon. Bootleg merchandise was soon as ubiquitous as the real thing. "Black Bart" T-shirts were a popular phenomenon in African-American communities, with Bart's catchphrases altered to "Watch it, mon!" and, without irony, "You wouldn't understand; it's a black thing". The Simpsons merchandise sold well and generated US$2 billion in revenue during the first 14 months of sales.
With Bart omnipresent and Fox expanding its programming schedule from three nights a week to five, a bold plan was hatched: beginning with the show's second season, in the fall of 1990, it would be moved to Thursday nights, where it would take on the reigning television champion, NBC's The Cosby Show.
The Simpsons - Season 2
"Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" (4th episode of the 2nd season) was the first episode produced for the season, but "Bart Gets an F" aired first because Bart was popular at the time and the producers decided that to premiering with a Bart themed episode would draw more attention.
So, "Bart Gets an F" is the first episode of The Simpsons' second season, aired on October 11, 1990. This was the first episode to feature the series' new, shorter opening sequence. This episode marked the first appearance of Mayor Quimby.
The second season featured a new opening sequence, which was shortened by fifteen seconds from its original length of roughly 1 minute, 30 seconds. The opening sequence for the first season showed Bart stealing a "Bus Stop" sign; whilst the new sequence featured him skateboarding past several characters who had been introduced during the previous season. Starting with this season, there were three versions of the opening: a full roughly 1 minute 15 second long version, a 45 second version and a 25 second version. This gave the show's editors more leeway.
The episode was ranked 31st on Entertainment Weekly' list of the 100 Greatest Moments in Television. It marked the first time that The Simpsons aired at the same time as The Cosby Show on NBC. It averaged an 18.4 Nielsen Rating and 29% of the audience. An estimated 33.6 million viewers watched the episode, making it the number one show in terms of actual viewers that week. At the time, it was the most watched episode in the history of the Fox Network and it is still the highest rated episode in the history of the show.
This episode marked a presage of the passing of the baton from '80s family function to '90s dysfunction--it immediately took a chunk out of the NBC champ. and as Matt Groening recalls, "That was when we started figuring out what we were doing, I thought, Okay, we're going to be around for a while."
However the Fox network decided to move The Simpsons from 8:00 PM on Sunday night to 8:00 PM on Thursday where it would compete with The Cosby Show, the number one show at the time. Most of the producers, including James L. Brooks, were against this desicion because The Simpsons had been in the top 10 while airing on Sunday and they were sure this would cause the ratings to plummet.
During the second season The Cosby Show beat The Simpsons every time, furthermore The Simpsons fell out of the top 10. It would not be until the third season episode "Homer at the Bat" (17th episode of the 3rd season) that The Simpsons would beat The Cosby Show for the first time.
Speaking mainly from the animation side, as specified by Silverman, the animation started to click at the beginning of season 2, it was beginning to look more standardized. There were flashes of really good animation here and there. There were some in the first season, especially with Brad Bird's episode, "Krusty Gets Busted" (12th episode of the 1st season); that episode of the 1st season really helped set a standard for the 2nd season.
The 2nd season saw the introduction of several new recurring characters, including Mayor Quimby, Kang and Kodos, Maude Flanders, Bill and Marty, Dr. Hibbert, Roger Meyers, Sideshow Mel, Lionel Hutz, Dr. Nick Riviera, Blue Haired Lawyer, Rainier Wolfcastle, Troy McClure, Groundskeeper Willie, Hans Moleman, Professor Frink and Comic Book Guy.
In the beginning, Bart was made to be the main character. This is evident from the vast number of Bart-orientated episodes in the first few Seasons, such as Bart The General and Bart The Daredevil. Bart was also the center of much of the merchandise, and even the focal point of two music videos: Do The Bartman and Trouble.
However, after a few Seasons, it emerged that Homer was more popular, hence the large increase in Homer-orientated episodes in later seasons, such as Homer The Heretic and Homer Vs. Patty & Selma among others.
The Simpsons - Season 3
Aired between September 19, 1991 and May 7, 1992. This season could be considered as the one which made The Simpson to finally take off for good. During this season 24 episodes were aired.
During this season Hank Azaria became a regular cast member. He joined the show aged 22, having previously performed only one voice over, as an animated dog in the Fox pilot Hollywood Dog. The first voice he performed was that of town bartender Moe Szyslak, replacing Christopher Collins who had voiced the character in several previous episodes. At the time he was doing a play, in which he performed the role of a drug dealer, basing his voice on Al Pacino in Dog Day Afternoon. He used that voice in the audition, and was told by Matt Groening and Sam Simon to make it more gravelly, with it becoming the voice of Moe. Groening and Simon thought it was perfect and took Azaria over to the Fox recording studio. At that point he was given a contract and made a permanent member of the cast. As well as Moe, Wiggum and Apu, Azaria provides the voices of Comic Book Guy, Carl Carlson, Cletus Spuckler, Professor Frink, Dr. Nick Riviera, Lou, Snake, Kirk Van Houten, the Sea Captain, Superintendent Chalmers, Duffman, the "Wise Guy" and numerous other one-time characters.
Regarding the animation and style of the characters, this season was the one that standardized many of their aspect. They had other artists joining the staff, and different layout artists would bring different ideas. When they were working on the "Flaming Moe" episode, Rich Moore really got to develop Moe as a character, coming up with little traits like scratching his ear. In the second season, the directors had fewer episodes, so they could really focus more on each episode. They were all beginning to clarify how these characters should move and act. The third season saw the introductions of four characters: Lunchlady Doris, Fat Tony, and Kirk and Luann Van Houten.
This was the final season released on VHS. All later seasons were released on DVD only. The DVD edition featured commentary for every episode, keeping to tradition.
On January 27, 1992, the first President Bush proclaimed "We're going to strengthen the American family to make them more like the Waltons and less like the Simpsons" during a speech of his re-election campaign at the National Religious Broadcaster's convention in Washington.
Afterwards, the show retaliated when Bart responded, in the next broadcast of the Simpsons which was actually a rerun of "Stark Raving Dad" (first aired on September 19, 1991) on January 30. In that broadcast there was hastily included a new opening, which was a response to Bush's speech. The scene begins in the Simpsons living room. Homer, Patty, and Selma sit on couch. Maggie is in her high chair next to the couch. Bart and Lisa are sprawled on the carpet. They all stare at the TV, watching Bush's speech. When Bush says "We need a nation closer to the Waltons than the Simpsons", Bart replies "Hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too". The animation for this scene was recycled from the Season 2 episode Simpson and Delilah.
Due to the popularity already aquired by the show; they were also transported to the Video Games world with The Simpsons: The Arcade Game. It's an arcade game produced by Konami in 1991. It is a beat 'em up based on the cartoon series of the same name. The voice actors of the immediate family (Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, and Yeardley Smith) provide their talents for their respective characters. The game was ported to the Commodore 64, and PC.
The Simpsons - Season 4 and on
During the 4th season when the episode "A Streetcar Named Marge" was produced. The musical within the episode contains a controversial song about New Orleans, which describes the city as a "home of pirates, drunks and whores", among other things. Jeff Martin, the writer of the episode, had meant the song to be a parody of the opening number in Sweeney Todd, which speaks of London in unflattering terms. Al Jean later explained that two Cajun characters were supposed to walk out of the theater in disgust, but none of the voice actors could provide a convincing Cajun accent.
Before the premiere of the fourth season, the producers sent two episodes to critics: "Kamp Krusty" and "A Streetcar Named Marge". A New Orleans critic viewed "A Streetcar Named Marge" and published the song lyrics in his newspaper before the episode aired. Many readers took the lyrics out of context, and New Orleans' Fox affiliate, WNOL, received about one hundred complaints on the day the episode aired. Several local radio stations also held on-air protests in response to the song.
The Simpsons' producers rushed out a chalkboard gag for the next episode aired on October 8, 1992 "Homer the Heretic". It read, "I will not defame New Orleans." The gag was their attempt to "apologize" for the song and hopefully bring the controversy to an end.
As Bartmania cooled off, and the series moved toward institutional status with its fourth, fifth, and sixth seasons, the show's quality miraculously refused to drop. It got funnier, smarter, richer in allusion and parody. The producers changed animation studios from Klasky Csupo to Film Roman in the fourth season, updating the rudimentary look with slicker designs and a more varied palette.
After Simon had left, in 1993, different writers were promoted to fill the role of show-runner. Al Jean and Mike Reiss took over first. Then the producers brought in David Mirkin, who had written for Three's Company and created Get a Life, with Chris Elliot. After Mirkin came longtime writers Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein, followed by Mike Scully (who stayed in charge for four seasons—the unwritten rule had been that show-runners stay for two years), before the show was given back to Al Jean, who has run The Simpsons since 2001.
As the series relinquished the emotional grounding of the early years, it became more topical. Later episodes seemed increasingly tailored to guest appearances—a forgivable sin, concerning the impressive list: Mick Jagger, Mel Gibson, Alec Baldwin and Kim Basinger, Steve Martin, Elton John, Ludacris, Ricky Gervais, Elvis Costello, Stephen Hawking, Tony Blair, Frank Gehry, Susan Sarandon, Tom Clancy, and J. K. Rowling (to name a few). Even the earliest seasons had been graced by Michael Jackson, Penny Marshall, and Elizabeth Taylor, who voiced Maggie's first word, "Daddy".
Regarding the guest appereances when Michael Jackson played the voice of Leon Kompowsky in the first episode of season 3 "Stark Raving Dad", the producers didn't want him to be uncredited; they wanted him to be Michael Jackson; according to them that was the point of the whole joke of the episode. So they began saying that if you're going to be a guest on the show, you've got to own up to it. Hovever, Michael Jackson didn't want credit. So, in the third season they made a rule: You want to be on the show? You gotta own up to it! Though there's an exception with Joe Mantegna, who plays as Fat Tony. When he first appeared in the show with "Bart the Murderer," (4th episode of the 3rd season) Joe said, "Wherever I am, whatever I'm doing, you've got to get me on to do Fat Tony". So when-ever they do Fat Tony, they get Joe Mantegna.
In Season 14, production switched from traditional cel animation to digital ink and paint. The first episode to experiment with digital coloring was "Radioactive Man" in 1995. Animators used digital ink and paint during production of the Season 12 episode "Tennis the Menace", but Gracie Films delayed the regular use of digital ink and paint until two seasons later. The already completed "Tennis the Menace" was broadcast as made.
As the show's revenue continued to rise through syndication and DVD sales, the main cast stopped appearing for script readings in April 2004. The work stoppage occurred after weeks of unsuccessful negotiations with Fox, in which the cast asked for an increase in their pay to $360,000 per episode, or $8 million over a 22-episode season. On May 2, 2004, the actors reached an agreement with Fox; it was resolved—the actors now make more than "a hundred thousand dollars" an episode, and thus the show has kept rolling on. The contract has been renewed until 2009, and on July 27, 2007, the characters made the jump to the big screen.
At the end of 2007 the writers of The Simpsons went on strike together with the Writers Guild of America. However, the broadcasting of The Simpsons was not be affected by the strike. Each episode requires a long time to get produced, but since the episodes are ready up to a year in advance; the strike had to go on for a while if they should run out of new episodes.
While debate over the show's quality will rage (mostly on the Internet), what is significant is that it has persevered. Maybe The Simpsons' glory days passed a decade ago, the show is still reliable for some intelligent laughs, and comfortably sits in its eight-o'clock Sunday spot, watched by 10 million viewers every week. The writers' room is nearly as vibrant as ever, continuing to draw from Harvard and the cream of the young comedy-writing crop.
A jump to the big screen - The Movie
The production staff had considered a film adaptation of The Simpsons since early in the series. The show's creator, Matt Groening, felt a feature length film would allow them to increase the show's scale and animate sequences too complex for a TV series.
There were attempts to adapt the fourth season episode "Kamp Krusty" into a film, but difficulties were encountered in expanding the episode to feature-length. For a long time the project was held up.
There was difficulty finding a story that was sufficient for a film, and the crew did not have enough time to complete such a project, as they already worked full time on the show. Groening also expressed a wish to make Simpstasia, a parody of Fantasia; it was never produced, partly because it would have been too difficult to write a feature-length script. Before his death, Phil Hartman had said he had wished to make a live action Troy McClure film, and several of the show's staff had expressed a desire to help create it.
The voice cast was signed on to do the film in 2001, and work then began on the script. The producers were initially worried that creating a film would have a negative effect on the series, as they did not have enough crew to focus their attention on both projects. As the series progressed, additional writers and animators were hired so that both the show and the film could be produced at the same time.
Groening and James L. Brooks invited back Mike Scully and Al Jean (who continued to work as showrunner on the television series) to produce the film with them. They then signed David Silverman (who, in anticipation of the project, had quit his job at Pixar) to direct the film. A big writing team was assembled, with many of the writers from the show's early seasons being chosen. David Mirkin, Mike Reiss, George Meyer, John Swartzwelder and Jon Vitti were selected. Ian Maxtone-Graham and Matt Selman joined later, and Brooks, Groening, Scully, and Jean also wrote parts of the script. Sam Simon did not return having left the show over creative differences in 1993. Former writer Conan O'Brien wanted to work with the Simpsons staff again.
It must be noted also that the producers arranged a deal with Fox that would allow them to abandon production of the film at any point if they felt the script was unsatisfactory.
So, work continued on the screenplay from 2003 onwards, in the small bungalow where Groening first produced The Simpsons in 1987.
The writers spent six months discussing a plot, and each of them offered different ideas. Jean suggested the family rescue manatees, which finally became the 2005 episode "Bonfire of the Manatees", there was also an idea of implementing something similar to that of The Truman Show, where the characters discover their lives were just part of a TV show; though the latter was rejected by Groening, as he felt that the Simpsons should "never become aware of themselves as celebrities".
Then, Groening read about a town that had to get rid of pig feces in their water supply, which inspired the plot of the film. The decision for Flanders to have in an important role also came early on, as Jean wished to see Bart wonder what his life would be like if Flanders were his father. Having eventually decided on the basic outline of the plot for the film, the writers then separated it into seven sections. Jean, Scully, Reiss, Swartzwelder, Vitti, Mirkin, and Meyer wrote 25 pages each, and the group met one month later to merge the seven sections into one "very rough draft".
The film's script was written in the same way as the television series: the writers sitting around a table, pitching ideas and trying to make each other laugh. The script went through over 100 revisions. Groening described his desire to also make the film dramatically stronger than a TV episode, saying that he wanted to "give you something that you haven't seen before".
Animation for the film began in January 2006. Itchy & Scratchy short was the first scene to be storyboarded. Computer-generated imagery was rejected by Groening calling the film's animation "deliberately imperfect" and "a tribute to the art of hand-drawn animation". The format was wider (2.35:1 aspect ratio) than that of the show; and they added more details to the background as well as more color variations and tone changes, not enough so it would look totally different from the show but enough so it would have more richness on the screen. Otherwise, you'd be looking at very large flat colors.
In terms of the animation, they basically lavished the same intensity on every scene that they would do to a specific shot on the show, so according to Silverman where they are going to lavish a lot of attention on this one scene, for this one episode; they tried to lavish the same amount of attention on every scene. A lot of the animation was produced using Wacom Cintiq tablets, which allowed images to be drawn directly onto a computer monitor to facilitate production. Animation production work was divided among four studios around the world: Film Roman in Burbank, California, Rough Draft Studios in Glendale, California, and AKOM and Rough Draft Korea in Seoul, South Korea. Like the television series, the storyboarding, characters, background layout and animatic parts of production, were done in America. The overseas studios completed the animation, in-betweening and digital ink and paint processes.
The animators looked for inspiration films like, The Incredibles, Triplets of Belleville, and Bad Day at Black Rock; as according to Silverman they represent "a great education in staging because of how the characters are placed". For crowd scenes they've been inspired by It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. Silverman looked also at some of the Simpsons episodes he had directed, primarily his two favorites, "Homie the Clown" and "Three Men and a Comic Book". Mike B. Anderson, Lauren MacMullan, Rich Moore, and Steven Dean Moore each directed the animation for around a quarter of the film under Silverman's supervision, with numerous other animators working on scenes.
As for the cast, for inspiration for the crowd scenes in the film, the production staff spent a long time looking at a poster that featured more than 320 Simpsons characters. Groening said they tried to include every single character in the film, with 98 having speaking parts.
The cast did the first of three table readings in May 2005, and began recording every week from June 2006 until the end of production. James L. Brooks directed them for the first time since the television show's early seasons. Castellaneta found the recording sessions "more intense" than recording the television series, and "more emotionally dramatic". Some scenes, such as Marge's video message to Homer, were recorded over one hundred times, leaving the voice cast exhausted.
The writers had written the opening concert scene without a specific band in mind. Green Day were cast in that role having requested to guest star in the show. Tom Hanks also appears as himself in the film and accepted the offer after just one phone call.
Nonetheless, because of lack of time, several guests who had recorded parts were cut from the film. Some examples of this are; Edward Norton recorded the part of the man who gets crushed as the dome is implemented, performing a Woody Allen impression. The staff felt the voice was too distracting, so Castellaneta re-recorded Norton's dialogue with a different voice; other examples include Isla Fisher, Erin Brockovich, Kelsey Grammer and Johnny Knoxville among others.
After winning a Fox and USA Today competition, Springfield, Vermont hosted the film's world premiere. The Simpsons Movie grossed a combined total of $74 million in its opening weekend in the US, taking it to the top of the box office, and set the record for highest grossing opening weekend for a film based on a television series, surpassing Mission Impossible II. It opened at the top of the international box office, taking $96 million from seventy-one overseas territories — including $27.8 million in the United Kingdom, making it Fox's second highest opening ever in that country. In Australia, it grossed AU$13.2 million, the biggest opening for an animated film and third largest opening weekend in the country. As of November 23, 2007 the film has a worldwide gross of $525,267,904.
7-Eleven stores redesigned a dozen of their stores to look like Kwik-E-Marts, Springfield, U.S.A.'s favorite convenience store owned by father of octuplets Apu Nahasapeemapetilon. Products from the show were brought to life, such as "Sprinklicious" donuts, Buzz Cola, Squishee frozen drinks, and KrustyO's, which sold over 4 million units. Burger King "Simpsonized" real life people into Simpsons characters, featured Krusty burgers instead of Whoppers, and had Homer drooling on Whoppers in their commercials. The promotion resulted in a 30% increase in profits for the changed 7-Eleven stores. The conversions lasted through early August, when the stores were converted back to 7-Elevens.
Currently a twentieth season is under production, and due to be aired by fall 2008. No one knows for how many years the show will keep airing, but one thing is for sure; no other television series has achieved such a record of running for 20 consecutive years and still having that spark of success alive, as in the case of The Simpsons. Thus, it can be said for The Simpsons, that they represent a unique case in the history of television.
Matt Groening and James L. Brooks have been the executive producers of the show for its entire history. They are also creative consultants of The Simpsons.
Sam Simon, who'd co-developed the series with Brooks and Groening and served as creative supervisor during the first seasons; left the show in 1993. Nonetheless he's still credited as an executive producer.
The Simpsons has a long list of Show Runners who served in this position for the last two decades. (A Show Runner is the person who runs the daily operation of a TV show)
From season 1 to season 2 Matt Groening, James L. Brooks, & Sam Simon runned the show. Then from season 3 (1991-1992) to season 4 (1992-1993); Al Jean & Mike Reiss took that position. Later in seasons 5 and 6; came David Mirkin; followed by Bill Oakley amd Josh Weinstein in seasons 7 and 8. From season 9 and on Show Runners; would serve for more than the usual two-years term; Mike Scully being the first one serving for four seasons (seasons 9-12). From season 13 (2001-2002) to our days; Al Jean took the responsibility of running the show.
The writing team is made up of sixteen persons; each one of them bringing the new proposals and ideas for the next season at the beginning of each December. First the main writer of each episode writes the draft. Then follow the group rewriting sessions in order to build the final script. During these rewritting sessions they may add or remove jokes as well as inserting or removing scenes. Finally they call the vocal performers for re-reading of the lines.
The leading writer of the sessions is George Meyer, who was involved with the show since Season 1. According to long-time writer Jon Vitti, Meyer usually invents the best lines in a given episode, even though other writers may receive script credits.
Each episode requires six months of production; that's why there are rarely comments about current events in the episodes; with certain exceptions, like Halloween (Treehouse of Horror series) or the Super Bowl.
John Swartzwelder is the most prolific writer on The Simpsons' staff; he's credited with sixty episodes. Swartzwelder has been absent from writing episodes of The Simpsons since the fifteenth season (2003-04), with his last episode airing (The Regina Monologues) actually being a "holdover" from the fourteenth (2002-2003) season. He later returned for the The Simpsons Movie in 2007.
One of the best-known former writers is Conan O'Brien, who contributed to four episodes in the early 1990s before resigning his position on The Simpsons, despite the fact that his contract had not expiredthe, to move out to the talk show Late Night. Of all the episodes he wrote, he considers "Marge vs. the Monorail" to be his favorite
English comedian Ricky Gervais wrote the episode "Homer Simpson, This Is Your Wife", becoming the first celebrity to both write and guest star in an episode. In April 2008, Empire magazine reported that Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg, writers of the film Superbad will write an episode.
At the end of 2007 the writers of The Simpsons went on strike together with the rest of the Writers Guild of America; which the writers of the show joined in 1998.
Actors who provide the voices
There are six main cast members. Dan Castellaneta plays the voices of Homer Simpson, Abraham Simpson, Krusty the Clown, and other adult, male characters. Julie Kavner does the voices of Marge Simpson and her sisters Patty and Selma; she also performs the voices of other minor characters. Nancy Cartwright performs the voices of Bart Simpson, Ralph Wiggum and other children. Yeardley Smith, does the voice of Lisa Simpson, is the only cast member who regularly voices only one character, although she occasionally plays other episodic characters.
There are two of the male actors who only play characters of the male townspeople; those being, Hank Azaria and Harry Shearer; the former provides the voices for Moe, Chief Wiggum, and Apu, while the latter provides the voices of Mr. Burns, Smithers, Principal Skinner, Ned Flanders, Reverend Lovejoy, and Dr. Hibbert.
Harry Shearer is the only member of the cast who didn't win an Emmy for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance.
Until 1998, the six main actors had salaries of $30,000 per episode. That year there was a pay dispute between the actors and Fox, which even threatened to replace them with new actors. The conflict reached to a happy end when they agreed to increase their salaries to$125,000 per episode. In 2004, again another conflict arose when the voice actors intentionally skipped several table reads, and demanded to have their salaries increased to $360,000 per episode. That conflict was resolved too and they are currently paid with earnings between $250,000 and $360,000 per episode. In 2008, production for the 20th season was put on hold due to new contract negotiations with the voice actors, who demand a salary that could go up near the $500,000 per episode.
There are also secondary actors like Pamela Hayden, Tress MacNeille, Marcia Wallace, Maggie Roswell, and Russi Taylor who provide the voices of recurring characters. From 1999 to 2002, Maggie Roswell's characters were voiced by Marcia Mitzman Gaven.
There are also "special guest" cast members which include Albert Brooks, Phil Hartman, Jon Lovitz, Joe Mantegna, and Kelsey Grammer.
With one exception, episode credits list only the voice actors, and not the characters they voice. During the early seasons the identities of the actors were kept secret by FOX network, closing most of the recording sessions or refusing to publish photos of the recording artists. However, in the episode "Old Money" their identities were revealed mentioning which role played each one; that happened because the producers said the voice actors should receive credit for their work. In 2003, the cast appeared in an episode of Inside the Actors Studio, doing live performances of their characters' voices.
The show also holds the Guinness World Record for "Most Celebrities Featured in an Animation series".
The show has been dubbed into several other languages, such as Japanese, German, Spanish, and Portuguese. It is also one the few programs dubbed in both French and Quebec French. The Simpsons has been broadcast in Arabic, but due to Islamic customs, numerous aspects of the show have been changed. For instance, Homer drinks soda instead of beer and eats Egyptian beef sausages instead of hot dogs. Because of such changes, the Arabized version of the series met with a negative reaction from many of the life-long Simpsons fans in those countries.
The Simpsons are animated in different studions in the US and other countries abroad. During the first years when the Simpsons were featured in The Tracey Ullman Show, the short were animated domestically at Klasky Csupo. During the first three seasons of the show, the episodes were animated at Klasky Csupo too. However 1992 the show's production company, Gracie Films (an American film and television production company, created by James L. Brooks in 1986) switched domestic animation to Film Roman, an American animation studio; which still animates the show to these days.
With the coming of The Simpsons Show series, Fox subcontracted production to several international studios, located in South Korea due to the increased worload. In Film Roman, they draw the storyboard, design new characters, backgrounds, props and draw character and background layouts, which in turn become animatics to be screened for the writers at Gracie Films for any changes to be made before the work is shipped overseas. The overseas studios then draw the inbetweens, ink and paint, and render the animation to tape before it is shipped back to the United States to be delivered to Fox three to four months later.
AKOM, a South Korean animation studio is responsible for the overseas animation for 200 episodes of The Simpsons. Another South Korean studio involved in the oversees animation for episodes from seasons 3–10 is Anivision.
Rough Draft Studios, Inc. (RDS) is an animation studio founded by Gregg Vanzo after he had finished directing season 1 of The Simpsons. Its primary headquarters are located in Glendale, California, United States with its sister studio, Rough Draft Korea in Seoul, South Korea.
Rough Draft Studios, Inc. (RDS) an animation studio located in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, California, has specialties in both character-driven animation and in the blending of 2-D with computer animation (as showcased in The Simpsons Movie and Futurama).
U.S. Animation, Inc., a studio laceted in Los Angeles, CA provided digital ink and paint services to The Simpsons. They jointly produced "Radioactive Man" with Anivision. They also produced "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular".
Toonzone Entertainment worked on The Simpsons with "The Fat and the Furriest" and "She Used to Be My Girl" episodes.
Homer Simpson, Marge Simpson, Bart Simpson, Lisa Simpson, Maggie Simpson
The Simpsons takes place mainly in Springfield a fictional American town.
There are no geographical references to US states in the show that might locate Springfield in a specific part of the country.
The town's surroundings characteristics are so varied, ranging from coastlines and mountain ranges to farmlands and huge wooded lands; that are used by fans as clues to find a certain location for the city. As a response, the show has become intentionally evasive in regard to Springfield's location (for example in the episode "Much Apu About Nothing" when, just as Lisa is about to point out Springfield's state on a U.S. map, Bart's head occupies the picture), so much that it became a running gag in the series; however the geography of Springfield or its surroundings fits to the requirements of the story or joke of each episode.
The name "Springfield" is a common one in America as it appears in 34 states of the country. Its name was chosen by Matt Groening because it is one of the most common place-names in the US.
Despite this, Groening has said that Springfield has much in common with Portland, Oregon, the city where he grew up. In addition to that and to some details regarding the history of the town (in most of the cases) and its geographic features; many fans concluded that the most fitting location for this fictitious city could be somewhere in Oregon; nevertheless as soon as it's required for a given episode, the geography of Springfield could have an extreme change; so the Oregon hypothesis is based on the most frequent aspect that is featured throughout the series.
Though the state in which Springfield appears is never actually stated, numerous episodes discuss other states, thereby implying that Springfield is not located in them.
In The Simpsons Movie, the idea that Springfield cannot exist for real is further emphasized when Ned Flanders identifies the four bordering states as Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky, most of which are vastly separated from each other, while Kentucky and Ohio border each other with no state in between.
To promote the movie, various towns and cities across the United States called Springfield competed to hold the premiere of the movie in their town. Springfields from many different states entered the competition. The town of Springfield, Vermont was elected to host the movie's premiere. In response to this, Groening revealed that he had always intended Springfield to represent Springfield, Oregon, and his hometown of Beaverton.
Some facts collected by fans that may locate Springfield in Oregon:
However there are many other facts that may locate the city somewhere else; but it must be noted that the most recurrent ones are linked with the state of Oregon; maybe because the show creator is from that state; thus getting most of his inspirations from familiar places located there.
Some city statistics based on references mentioned in different episodes
Springfield was founded in 1796 by Maryland settlers trying to find a course to "New Sodom" after misinterpreting a passage in the Bible. In its early days, the city was the target of many Native American raids, and to this day, many forts and trading posts remain, including Fort Springfield and Fort Sensible.
During the Civil War it was the site of two battles. The first battle of Springfield was fought between the North, the South, and the East in an effort to keep Springfield out of, in, and next to the Union respectively.
The founder of Springfield was the pioneer Jebediah Springfield. The town motto, "A Noble Spirit Embiggens the Smallest Man", is attributed to Jebediah. Only Lisa, Homer, and the museum owner know that Jebediah was a fraud.
Locations around the city and surroundings
The city is divided into many neighborhoods, including: Bum Town, Chinatown, Crackton, East Springfield, Greek Town, Junkyville, Little Bangkok, Little Italy, Little Newark, Ethnictown, Lower Eastside, Pressboard Estates, Recluse Ranch Estates, Skid Row, Springfield Harbor, Springfield Heights, Springshire, Tibet Town, flammable district, a gay district, and a Russian district. There is also a housing project in Springfield called Lincoln Park Village.
Some of the geographical features mentioned throughout the series include Springfield Gorge, Springfield National Forest, Mt. Springfield, the Springfield Badlands (also known as the Alkali Flats), The Murderhorn, Springfield Glacier, Springfield Mesa and Springfield National Park. Wildlife includes grizzly bears in the Springfield Forest, wolves, some of which prowl into the urban areas of Springfield, vultures in the Alkali Flats, and manatees south of Springfield in the coastal waters.
The town is home to the Springfield Isotopes, an AA minor league baseball team. Home games are played at Duff Stadium. The Springfield Isotopes were the inspiration for the new name of the Florida Marlins' AAA affiliate, the Albuquerque Isotopes, when they relocated to Albuquerque, New Mexico from Calgary (for more info visit: http://www.albuquerquebaseball.com/). The plot of the "Hungry, Hungry Homer" episode revolves around Homer Simpson's attempts to thwart a planned move by the team to Albuquerque.
Springfield has a basketball and hockey arena, which is home to the Springfield Ice-O-Topes hockey team. The town may also have a WNBA franchise which also plays at the facility. Springfield also has a large soccer field. At one time, the Portuguese and Mexican soccer teams played a match in that arena. Other sports venues in Springfield include the Springfield Speedway (an oval track where stock car races are held), Springfield Downs (a horse racing track), and a dog track. There is also the Association of Springfield Semi-Pro Boxers. Springfield also had an NFL team, the Meltdowns, designed by Homer.
Other places where the show runs
Many episodes, are set also in places outside Springfield; including the neighboring fictitious Shelbyville, another fictitious city featured in the show is Capital City (probably the state capital). In several episodes of the series the Simpsons visit real world locations including places like, Australia, Japan, France, Italy or Brazil as well as cities such as New york or London.
A number of neologisms that originated on The Simpsons have entered the popular vernacular.
Mark Liberman, director of the Linguistic Data Consortium, remarked, "The Simpsons has apparently taken over from Shakespeare and the Bible as our culture's greatest source of idioms, catchphrases and sundry other textual allusions".
The most famous catchphrase is Homer's annoyed grunt: "D'oh!" This expression became so popular that has been included in the Oxford English Dictionary, but without the apostrophe.
Dan Castellaneta says he borrowed the phrase from James Finlayson, an actor in early Laurel and Hardy comedies, who pronounced it in a more elongated and whining tone. The director of The Simpsons told Castellaneta to shorten the noise, and it went on to become the well-known exclamation in the TV series.
Other Simpsons expressions that have entered popular use include "excellent" (drawn out as a sinister "eeeexcelllent…" in the style of Charles Montgomery Burns), Homer's triumphant "Woohoo!" and Nelson Muntz's mocking "HA-ha!" Groundskeeper Willie's description of the French as "cheese-eating surrender monkeys" was used by conservative National Review columnist Jonah Goldberg in 2003, after France's opposition to the proposed invasion of Iraq. The phrase quickly spread to other journalists.
"Cromulent", a word used in "Lisa the Iconoclast" has since appeared in the Webster’s New Millennium Dictionary of English. "Kwyjibo", a fake Scrabble word invented by Bart in "Bart the Genius", was used as one of the aliases of the creator of the Melissa worm. "I, for one, welcome our new insect overlords", was used by Kent Brockman in "Deep Space Homer" and has seeped into popular culture to describe a number of events. Variants of Brockman's utterance are used to express mock submission, usually for the purpose of humor. It has been used in media, such as New Scientist magazine. The dismissive term "Meh" has also been popularized by the show.
The use of Korean animation studios doing in-betweening, coloring, and filming made the episodes cheaper. The success of The Simpsons and the lower production cost prompted television networks to take chances on other animated series. This development led to a 1990s boom in new, animated prime-time shows, such as South Park, Family Guy, King of the Hill, Futurama, and The Critic. South Park later paid homage to The Simpsons with the episode "Simpsons Already Did It".
The Springfield Isotopes were the inspiration for the new name of the Florida Marlins' AAA affiliate, the Albuquerque Isotopes, when they relocated to Albuquerque, New Mexico from Calgary.
The popularity of The Simpsons motivated the video game industry to turn to the characters and world of Springfield. While critical and public reaction has been mixed, several of the Simpsons games did very well commercially, most notably Konami's arcade game The Simpsons and Acclaim Entertainment's The Simpsons: Bart vs. the Space Mutants.
Simpsons video games have spanned all sorts of video game genres and systems, including The Simpsons Hit & Run, The Simpsons Road Rage, Simpsons Skateboarding, Virtual Springfield, Bart vs. The Juggernauts and Krusty's Super Fun House.
There are at least two Simpsons pinball games; one released after the first season, and the other still available.
In May 2007, EA announced the release of a new title, The Simpsons Game, expanding the franchise to consoles including the Wii, Xbox 360, Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 3.
Also in May 2007, Microsoft announced the release of a limited-edition The Simpsons Xbox 360.
"The Simpsons Theme", also referred to "The Simpsons Main Title Theme" in album releases, plays during the opening sequence and was composed by Danny Elfman in 1989, after series creator Matt Groening approached him requesting a retro-style theme. The piece, which took two days to create, has been noted by Elfman as the most popular of his career.
The theme as used for the opening sequence has been edited many times to coincide with edits of various lengths for the opening sequence. In addition, there have been extended edits and re-recordings for lengthened opening sequences. Several versions of the saxophone solo riff, played by Lisa Simpson in the animated sequence, have been created over the course of the series. A slightly different arrangement of the theme usually plays over the end credits of the show.
In 2007, Green Day recorded a cover version of the theme song for The Simpsons Movie and released it as a single. It placed as high as #19 on the UK Singles Chart and #16 on the UK download chart. Also for The Simpsons Movie, Hans Zimmer, who composed the score for the film, arranged his own version of the theme in an orchestral style consistent with the original, and also inserted "tiny fragments" of it into the rest of his score.
The theme won the National Music Award for "Favorite TV Theme" in 2002, and has won the BMI TV Music Award in 1996, 1998, and 2003. In 1990 the theme was nominated for the Emmy for "Outstanding Achievement in Main Title Theme Music".
The Simpsons has won different awards throughout its history, including 23 Emmy awards and nine in the Outstanding Animated Program (for programming one hour or less) category. However, The Simpsons has never been nominated for Outstanding Comedy Series, although the show was submitted in the category in 1993 and 1994. James L. Brooks, won nine Emmys for The Simpsons as well as ten for other shows and holds the record for most Primetime Emmys won by a single person, with 19. The Simpsons was the first animated series to be given a Peabody Award, and in 2000 the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The Simpsons Movie, released in 2007, was nominated for several major awards, including a Golden Globe Award.
The Simpsons also holds two world records from the Guinness Book of World Records: Longest-Running Primetime Animated Television Series and Most Guest Stars Featured in a Television Series.
So far The Simpsons won over 100 awards, while 4 of them went to the movie.
ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards
Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, USA (Saturn Award)
American Cinema Foundation, USA (E Pluribus Unum Award)
American Comedy Awards, USA
BAFTA TV Awards
BMI Film & TV Awards (BMI TV Music Award)
British Comedy Awards
CINE Competition (CINE Golden Eagle)
DVD Exclusive Awards
Environmental Media Awards, USA
GLAAD Media Awards
Golden Globes, USA
International Monitor Awards
Kids' Choice Awards, USA (Blimp Award)
Motion Picture Sound Editors, USA (Golden Reel Award)
National Music Awards, UK
National Television Awards, UK
Ottawa International Animation Festival (Grand Prize)
People's Choice Awards, USA
TP de Oro, Spain
TP de Oro, Spain
Teen Choice Awards
Television Critics Association Awards
Walk of Fame (Star on the Walk of Fame)
World Animation Celebration
Writers Guild of America, USA
Young Artist Awards
The Simpsons Movie (2007): The film was a box office success, grossing over US$526 million. It received a significant majority of positive reviews, with some critics saying it was better than the latter seasons of the show.
The film earned $30.7 million on its opening day in the U.S. making it the 16th-highest, and third-highest non-sequel opening day revenue of all time. It grossed a combined total of $74 million in its opening weekend, putting it at the top of the box office, and making it the fourth-highest revenue of all time, for an opening weekend in July, and highest among non-sequels. This outperformed the expectations of $40 million that Fox had for the release.
Directed: David Silverman
Writing: James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, Al Jean, Ian Maxtone-Graham, George Meyer, David Mirkin, Mike Reiss, Mike Scully, Matt Selman, John Swartzwelder, Jon Vitti, Joel Cohen, John Frink, Tim Long, Michael Price
Runtime: 87 min
Errores / Equivocaciones:
Reparto / Elenco:
Dan Castellanata: Homer Simpson, Abraham Simpson,Krusty the Clown, Barney Gumble, Groundskeeper Willie, Mayor Quimby, Hans Moleman, Sideshow Mel, Itchy, Kodos, Gil Gunderson, Squeaky Voiced Teen, Blue-Haired Lawyer, Rich Texan, Louie, Bill, Arnie Pie, Mr. Teeny, Yes Guy, Scott Christian, Assistant Superintendent Leopold, Rabbi Krustofski (replacing Jackie Mason, who voiced him in two episodes), Charlie, Gary, Santa's Little Helper (replacing Frank Welker), Frankie the Squealer.
Julie Kavner: Marge Simpson, Patty Bouvier, Selma Bouvier, Jacqueline Bouvier.
Nancy Cartwright: Bart Simpson, Nelson Muntz, Todd Flanders, Ralph Wiggum, Kearney, Database, Wendell Borton, Lewis.
Yeardley Smith: Lisa Simpson.
Hank Azaria: Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Clancy Wiggum, Comic Book Guy
Harry Shearer: Montgomery Burns, Waylon Smithers, Ned Flanders, Seymour Skinner, Otto Mann, Lenny Leonard, Reverend Timothy Lovejoy, Julius Hibbert, Kent Brockman, Jasper Beardley, Eddie, Rainier Wolfcastle, Scratchy, Marty, Dr. Marvin Monroe, Kang, Herman, Dewey Largo, Judge Snyder, Sanjay Nahasapeemapetilon, Benjamin, Jebediah Springfield, God.
Tress MacNeille: Agnes Skinner, Lindsey Naegle, Brandine Spuckler, Cookie Kwan, Crazy Cat Lady, Bernice Hibbert, Dolph Starbeam, Mrs. Glick, Poor Violet, Lunchlady Doris, Ms. Albright, Brunella Pommelhorst.
Pamela Hayden: Milhouse Van Houten, Rod Flanders, Jimbo Jones, Janey Powell, Sarah Wiggum, Malibu Stacy, Patches, Ruth Powers, Wendell Borton, Lewis, Richard.
Maggie Roswell: Maude Flanders, Helen Lovejoy, Elizabeth Hoover, Luann Van Houten, Princess Kashmir, Mary Bailey.
Russi Taylor: Martin Prince, Üter, Sherri and Terri, Wendell Borton, Lewis.
Karl Wiedergott: Various.
Marcia Wallace: Edna Krabappel.
Kelsey Grammer: Sideshow Bob.
Joe Mantegna: Fat Tony.
Albert Brooks: Hank Scorpio, Jacques "Brunswick", Cowboy Bob, Brad Goodman, Tab Spangler.
Jon Lovitz: Artie Ziff, Professor Lombardo, Aristotle Amadopoulos, Jay Sherman, Llewellyn Sinclair and Mrs. Sinclair, Enrico Irritazio.
Jan Hooks: Manjula Nahasapeemapetilon.
Maurice LaMarche: Various.
Jane Kaczmarek: Judge Constance Harm.
Episodios / Capítulos:
Prehistory - The Simpsons shorts in the Tracey Ullman Show
Season 1: 1987
Season 2: 1987-1988
Season 2: 1988-1989
The Simpsons - Season 1
The Simpsons - Season 2
The Simpsons - Season 3
The Simpsons - Season 4
The Simpsons - Season 5
The Simpsons - Season 6
The Simpsons - Season 7
The Simpsons - Season 8
The Simpsons - Season 9
The Simpsons - Season 10
The Simpsons - Season 11
The Simpsons - Season 12
The Simpsons - Season 13
The Simpsons - Season 14
The Simpsons - Season 15
The Simpsons - Season 16
The Simpsons - Season 17
The Simpsons - Season 18
The Simpsons - Season 19