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Modern English - Old English (Anglo Saxon) Dictionary A-B

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This is a Modern English - Old English online dictionary. The English language has evolved during the last 1600 years, undergoing extensive change, mainly during the Middle Ages. The English language has been brought to Great Britain by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who were groups of Germanic people who established themselves in Great Britain in the 5th century.

The language evolved during the next centuries, assimilating aspects of other languages with which it came in contact, like French and slowly took the form of the language we know today.

The English spoken between the arrival of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in the 5th century and the late 11th century after the Norman Conquest in 1066 is known as Old English. From the late 11th century to the late 15th century the language evolved to Middle English. From the late 15th century to the late 17th century the language evolved to Early Modern English after the Great Vowel Shift, and to Modern English in the period from the late 17th to the present.

The Old English or Anglo Saxon English was not a single uniform language, as it exhibited distinct regional dialects with some variations, which slowly were fused together by the late 9th century. The four main regional dialects of Old English were West Saxon, Mercian, Kentish and Northumbrian. Each of those dialect were associated with different English kingdoms of Great Britain.

In the 9th century parts of eastern Great Britain including all of Northumbria and parts of Mercia, were conquered by the Vikings; while Wessex, the rest of Mercia and Kent were successfully defended and finally integrated to the Kingdom of Wessex.

As a result of the merge of the different kingdoms and their integration to Wessex, the West Saxon dialect prevailed as a necessity to standardise the language of government; so documents were written in West Saxon and that's why most of the surviving texts in Old English are written in West Saxon.

However Modern English spelling owes most to the Mercian dialect, as it was the dialect spoken in London. Nevertheless West Saxon was the dominant language during the period in which most surviving documents and literature in Old English was recorded.

The following online dictionary features the translation of Modern English terms to their Old English counterparts of the 5th - 11th centuries period.





a [] name of the rune for ~ ác m

abase [] wv/t2 niðerian1oppress


abasement [] niðerung1f humiliation


abashed [] adj ǽwiscmód2ashamed


abbacy [] abboddóm m abbatial jurisdiction, abbodríce n abbey


abbatial jurisdiction [] abboddóm m abbacy


abbatial rank [] abbodhád m dignity


abbess [] abbodesse f


abbey [] abbodríce n abbacy; Anglo-Saxon ~ at York, afterwards St. Mary’s Galmanhó ?


abbot [] abbod m, abboda m [L. abbatem]; lack of an ~ abbodléast f


ABC [] ábécédé f alphabet


abduct [] sv/t3 nýdniman take by force


abduction [] nýdnimung f rapine


abide [] irreg v/i gebúan dwell; sv/t1 ábídan wait


ability [] cræft m skill; gód n virtue


Abingdon, in Berkshire [] Abban dún f


abjectly [] adv níðlíce


abjure [] sv/t5 æftercweðan renounce


ablative [] adj ætbrédendlic


able [] adj leoðufæst fast; numol good


abominable [] adj áwyrgedlic detestable, gehyspendlic


abortion [] áwegáworpnes f, an ~ ǽwyrp m


abounding [] 1. adj nyhtsum1abundant; 2. adv ~ly nyhtsumlíce


about [] 1. prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) around, prep w.a. ymbe (of time) at, prep w.d. or a. (temporal) in at; prep w.a. ymbe in regard to, prep w.a. ymbútan around, prep w.a. ábútan around; around ~ prep w.a. ábútan on the outside; prep w.d.i. æfter (object) for; 2. adv néah almost; (cmp néar; spl níehst); ymbe, ymb utan, ymbútan; ábútan nearly, néalíce nearly, néan nearly; ~ that place þǽrábútan


above [] adv ábúfan; over and ~ that þǽrbufan


abrogate [] wv/t2 lýtlian1 shorten


abscess [] gegaderednes f gathering


absence [] æfweardnes f


absent [] adj æfward, æfweard distant


abundance [] cystignes f, cystines f, genyhtsumung f


abundant [] 1. adj nyhtsum1abounding, þicce growing thickly; 2. adv ~ly nyhtsumlíce, genyhtlíce, neahhe1, neahhie1, neahhige1


abysmal [] adj neowol deep down


abyss [] æfgrynde n, nið n, grynde n, neowolnes f depth


accent [] accent m [L]


accept [] sv/t2 céosan1 approve, sv/t4 niman1assume


acceptable [] adj léofwende agreeable, lícwyrðe1pleasing


acceptance [] andfang n


accepted [] adj lícwyrðe1 recognized


access [] ingang m entrance; néalǽcung f approach, néosung1f


accessible [] adj gefére


accident [] gelimp n misfortune

accidentia [] adj gelimplic


accompanied [] causing or ~ by difficulty/hardship adj nearu oppressive


accompany [] wv/t2 geférscipian


accomplish [] wv/t1b geféran attain; wv/t1b lǽstan1carry out


accomplishment [] lást1n observance


accord [] of one’s own ~ adv gewealdes; of his own ~ (his) gewealdes


accordance [] in ~ with one’s nature or race adj geæðele natural


accordant [] adj ánswége harmonious


according to [] prep w.d. néah, prep w.d.i. æfter (causal) following


accost [] wv/t1b nǽgan12 speak to


account [] 1. gerád n reckoning; 2. on ~ of prep w.a. ymbe in regard to; 3. on no ~ adv náne þinga


accumulate [] sv/i7 ætflówan flow together


accumulation [] ypping f extent


accuracy [] gerád n


accurately [] adv nearolíce closely


accursed [] adj áwyrigende


accusation [] clearing from ~ lád f purgation


accuse [] sv/t1 ábetéon, wv/t1b ácustan,acusan [L], wv/t2 leahtrian1 blame, wv/t2 niðerian1


ache [] 1. jaw-~ céacádl f; 2. sv/i6 acan suffer pain


acknowledged [] adj geanwyrde known


acolyte [] ácolitus m [L], candelbora m


acorn [] áccærn m, áccorn m, æcern n


acquaintance [] cúðnes f knowledge, cýðnes1 f knowledge; cýðð f, cýððu f friendship


acquiescing [] adj geþafa consenting


acquisition [] geágnung f


acre [] 1. æcer m a certain quantity of land; an ~ æcersplott m; strip of land an ~ in extent, lying at the head of a field héafodæcer m; 2. by ~s adv æcermǽlum


act crookedly [] wv/t2 lytigian feign


act of feeding [] ǽt m, f, n eating


acting alone [] adv ánlaga


action [] anginn n onset; kind ~ lufu f; ~ of taking niming f


active [] 1. adj cáf prompt; ? gehweorf; 2. ~ly adv cáfe


Acton, Suffolk [] Acantún m


acute [] adj clǽne intellectual; more ~ gefrédra


adapted [] adj gerád conditioned


add to [] wv/t1b íecan1 increase, wv/t1b ætýcan increase


adder [] nǽdre f snake; ~-wort nǽdrewyrt f


addition [] ætéaca m


address [] wv/t1b nemnan speak to, wv/t2 nemnian speak to


addressing [] adj gecígendlic vocative


adduce [] irreg wv/t1b gebringan produce


adhere [] wv/t1b clengan, wv/t1b ætclíðan, sv/t1 clífan cleave, wv/t2 ætclifian


adherence to the rules of right conduct or method [] þéawfæstnes f discipline


adhesion [] ætfele m


adjourn [] wv/t2 ándagian1


administer [] wv/t2 þegnian1 serve an office


admire [] wv/t2 áwundrian wonder at


admission [] gecierrednes f entrance, infær n entry, infæreld n entrance


admitting [] adj w.g. geþæf agreeing to


adolescence [] geoguðhád m, geoguðhádnes f


adopt [] sv/t4 niman1 appropriate


adopted [] adj geágennod


adorn [] 1. wv/t1b glengan1decorate, wv/t1b geatwan equip; wv/t2 gearwian1 clothe; ~ with precious stones wv/t1b ástǽnan; 2. ~ed adj geatolic2magnificent; glengful decked out; 3. ~ment gierela1m apparel


adulation [] lyffetung f flattery


adulterer [] ǽwbreca m, nýdhǽmedre m


adulteress ? [] nýdhǽmestre f concubine


adultery [] hór n, ǽwbryce m, geligere n fornication, geligernes f concubinage


advance [] irreg v/i gán1proceed


advanced age [] æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2 old age


advanced in age [] adj gamolferhð old

advantage [] gód n benefit, gehýðnes f, notu f utility, hýðegung f, nytt f use, nyttung f profit

adventure oneself [] sv/t5 pléon w.g. expose to danger


adversary [] inwidda m evil one


advice [] þeaht n counsel, geþeaht f, n counsel, lár f exhortation


advise [] wv/t1b gelǽran enjoin, wv/t1b lǽran1urge


adviser [] geþeahta m couselor


adze [] adesa m, adese f hatchet


aerial [] adj lyften, lyftlic


affair [] cierr m business


affect with longing [] impersonal wv/t2 álangian


affection [] lufu f favor


affectionate [] adj lufiende


affinity [] néahsibb f near relationship


annoy; wv/t2 nearwian1cramp, wv/t3 yfle gehabban


afflicted [] adj gebrócod injured


affliction [] 1. gyrnstafas m pl injury, níð m oppression, níðhete2m torment; ~ caused by (Moses’) rod gierdwíte n, nýdcosting f; 2. visit with ~ wv/t1b néosan, wv/t2 néosian attack


afford [] wv/t1a ástellan supply


afloat [] adj áflote


aforementioned [] adj ǽrnemned

after [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter behind (local and temporal), prep w.d. æthindan behind; prep w.d.i. æfter (object) in pursuit of; prep w.a. ymbe (of time); 2. adj æfterweard further; yferra (cmp of ufan) subsequent; 3. adv æfter afterwards, æftum, ymbe, on láste/last; ~ that þǽræfter

after age [] æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2 later time


after-birth [] cildhama m


after-claim [] æftersprǽc f


afternoon meal [] nónmete m


afterwards [] 1. written ~ adj æfterwriten; 2. adv æfter then æfter þon/þæm/þisum, æfter þæm/þon/þan þe thereafter


again [] adv níwan stefne


against [] prep w.d.a. into to


agate [] gagátes m indecl, gagátstán m precious stone


age [] 1. ieldu f; advanced ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2old age; after ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2later time; an ~ of the world ieldu f; old ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2advanced age; old ~ ieldu f old people; 2. adj advanced in ~ gamolferhð old; very ~d infród2experienced


aged [] adj gamol2old, gamolferhð old, geléfed sickly


agent [] involuntary ~ nýdwyrhta m

agile [] adj leoðucræftig, léoht quick

agitation [] ýðung f commotion


agree [] wv/t2 gadrian1 unite, wv/t2 þeahtian1; ~ to wv/i1a cierran1 be converted


agreeable [] adj léof1 pleasant; léoftǽl, léoftǽle loving; léofwende acceptable


agreeing [] adj geþafa consenting, geþafsum consenting


agreeing to [] adj w.g. geþæf consenting to


agreement [] ánnes f covenant; geþafsumnes f; loc n settlement


agrimony [] gárclife f, agrimonia m


ah! [] interj oh!


aid [] wv/t1b andfylstan


air [] 1. lyft f, m, n sky; lyfthelm2 m mist; ǽðmm breath; 2. adj of the ~ lyften


ait [] iggað m, iggoð m, ígeoð m, ígoð m small island


alacrity [] cáfscipe m boldness


alas! [] interj ǽ, wá lá wá!


alb [] albe f [L] white garment


alder [] aler m, alor m, alr m


alder-wort [] nǽddrewinde f


Alexandrian [] adj Alexandrinesc


alien [] hostile ~ níðgæst2m fell demon


alienation [] áfremðung f


alight [] wv/t1b líhtan dismount


alive [] 1. adj gangende; 2. adv on life, tó life, lífes


alkalized water [] léag f lye


all [] 1. adj ǽghwilc every one, gehwilc each; 2. at ~ adv á always; 3. pron, noun ǽlc every; 4. noun ǽlc every;


Alleluia (the ~) [] Alleluia m


alleviate [] wv/t1b líhtan1 relieve


alleviation [] líhtung f relief, liss f [formerly líðs]


allot [] sv/t7 lǽtan1assign


allow [] sv/t7 lǽtan1; wv/t1b líefan1 concede; ~ to escape sv/t7 lǽtan1let out; ~ to remain sv/t7 lǽtan1let alone


allowed [] not to be ~ irreg v/t nágan have no right to


all-powerful [] adj ælcræftig almighty


allure [] sv/t6 áspanan seduce


allurement [] léassponung f, ymbspænning f


almighty [] adj ælcræftig all-powerful


almost [] adv néah nearly (cmp néar; spl níehst); lýtesná, lýtesne, lýtestne nearly


alms [] ælmesgifu f charity


almsgiving [] ælmeshand f charitableness, ælmessylen f


aloe [] alewe f


aloft [] adv on lyfte


alone [] adv ánlíepig, ánlípig, ánlípe, ánlípie only; ánum solely; acting ~ ánlaga


along [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter after (local and temporal); prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) about, prep w.g. andlang; 2. adv ymbe


alphabet [] ábécédé f ABC


already [] adv ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] formerly; nú þá now


altar [] altarm, altarem, alterm, altrem [L], glédstede2m


alteration [] áwendednes f, áwendendnes f change


altogether [] adv ǽghwæs entirely


alum [] ælifn f


always [] adv á for ever, ǽfre perpetually, gehwǽr on every occasion


am not [] neom verb form


amaze [] wv/t2 ámasian confound


ambassador [] ǽrendraca m messenger


ambrosia [] ambrósie f


ambush [] of ~ adj insǽte dependant

amen [] interj géalágé [géa lá géa] yea

amiable [] 1. adj luflic loving; 2. ~ly adv luflíce


amicable settlement [] lufu f


among [] prep w.d. ámang amongst, prep w.d. or a. (local) in in


amongst [] prep w.d. ámang among


amphitheater [] plegstów f gymnasium


ample [] adj ginn2spacious


amuse oneself [] wv/t1b plegan play


amusement [] gamenn pastime


ancestor [] cnéowmǽg m relation; ~s ieldra pl noun parents


anchorite [] ánbúend m hermit, ánsetla m hermit


ancient [] 1. adj gamol2old; 2. ~ building ǽrsceaft f; ~ world ǽrworuld f


and [] conj and; both…~ ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and


aneurism [] neurisn f


anew [] adv níwlinga, níwunga newly


angel [] ǽrendgást m, gást m good spirit, ǽrendraca m messenger, ár2 m herald


anger [] 1. ábylgnes f wrath; anda m envy; ábyligd f; ǽbylga m, ǽbylgnes f offence, ǽbylgð f, ǽbylgðu f offence, grama m rage, ǽbylgð f, ǽbylgðu f, æfðanc m, æfðanca m displeasure, iernes f, ierre n, ierscipe m, iersung f; níðgrama m malice; 2. wv/t1b ábylgan offend; 3. adj ~ed abealh, ábolgen


angle [] angel m hook


Anglen, a district in Schleswig, from which the Angles came [] Angel n


Angles [] norðléode m pl, the ~ Angle m pl

angrily [] adv grame fiercely, ierrenga fiercely

angry [] 1. adj gram hostile, gealgmód2gloomy/ furious, gealg sad; ierlic vehement, ierre fierce; very ~ ierreðweorh; 2. be ~ with wv/t2 iersian1 rage, sv/t3 ábelgan; make ~ sv/t3 ábelgan irritate, wv/t1b ábǽligan offend, wv/t1b geæbiligan offend


anguish [] 1. pín f [L poena] pain; 2. be in ~ wv/i2 angian1


animal [] 1. néat n beast; kind of ~ níetencynn n; maimed ~? gádinca m; savage ~ gásrícm; small ~ níetan n beast; 2. adv níetenlic brutish; like an ~ níetenlíce


ankle [] ancléow n, ancléowe f


annihilate [] wv/t2 ádílegian, ádílgian, ádíligian devastate


anniversary [] gehwyrft géares m, ymbryne m circuit; ~ of a death léorednes1f


announce [] sv/t2 ábéodan declare, wv/t2 ábodian proclaim, sv/t7 ábannan proclaim, wv/t1b ácýðan proclaim, sv/t7 ingefeallan proclaim, sv/t7 ábannan publish


annoy [] wv/t1b nǽtan1 afflict


annoyance [] láð n insult


annual service [] géarþénung f


anoint [] wv/t1b lýðran smear, wv/t2 gefǽttian, wv/t2 áfǽttian fatten, wv/t2 geasmirian smear


Anointed One [] Crist m Christ


answer [] 1. andswaru f, andwyrde n, andcwiss f; ǽrende n news; 2. wv/t2 andswarian1, wv/t1b andwyrdan1, andwyrdian1 , wv/t2 geandswarian


ant [] ǽmette f emmet


anthem [] antefn m antiphon, capitol m, capitul m, capitula m


ant-hill [] ǽmetbed n, ǽmethyll m


Antichrist [] Antecrist m [L]


antimony [] nebsealf f


antiphon [] antefn m anthem


antiquity [] gefyrnnes f


anvil [] anfealt f, anfilt n, anfilte n


anxiety [] angnes f fear, nearones f distress; caru f concern, carfulnes f care, gíeming f care, gíemnes f care, ymbhoga m care; ymbhygd f, ymbhýdignes f solicitude; sad ~ carsorg f


anxious [] 1. adj geænged troubled; ymbhýdig, ymbhýdiglic careful; carig2sorrowful, carful sad; 2. ~ly adv nearwe, ymbhýdiglíce; carfullíce sadly; 3. be ~ wv/t2 carian care for; be ~ about wv/i2 ymbhogian


any [] 1. adj ǽghwilc, gehwilc some, ǽlc; 2. adj, pron ǽlc; 3. adv ~ at all ǽfre ǽlc, ǽfre ǽnig


any one [] pron áhwá, gehwá (masc, fem), gehwæt (neut) whoever, áhwæðer


anything [] pron ǽghwæt, áhwæt, áhwæðer


anywhere [] adv ǽghwǽr; ǽghwider  in any direction, áhwǽr


apartment [] clýsung f enclosure; inn n lodging


ape [] apa m


apologist [] lǽdend m excuser


apology [] ládung f  defense


apostate [] 1. adj áworpen destroyed; 2. apostata m


apostle [] ǽrendraca m messenger, postol m, ár2m messenger


apostolic [] adj apostolic


apostolic letter [] pistol m [L epistola]

apparel [] gierela1m dress

appeal to [] wv/t1b ingecígan, ingecégan invoke


appear to men [] irreg v/t on tún gán1


appearance [] fix a day for ~ wv/t2 ándagian1


applaud [] wv/t1b plegan clap the hands


applause [] plega m


apple [] æppel m; kind of ~ æppelcynn n; ~ of the eye æppel m; gall-~ galloc m comfrey; ~-orchard apuldortún m; ~-pip æppelcyrnel n; bark of ~-tree apuldorrind f; ~-tree apulder f, m, apuldor f, m; ~-vessel æppelfæt n


appoint [] sv/t7 árǽdan prepare, wv/t1a ástellan display, sv/t7 ingefeallan  announce; wv/t2 instihtian arrange; wv/t2 namian1nominate; ~ a day or term wv/t2 geándagian


appointed day [] ándaga m


apprehend [] wv/t2 gelangian seize


approach [] 1. néalǽcung f access; 2. irreg wv/t1b w.d. néalǽcan; wv/t1b nǽgan12 accost; ~ the shore sv/t7 gelǽtan néah land


appropriate [] adj gehýðe convenient


appropriate [] sv/t4 niman1 adopt


approve [] sv/t2 céosan1 accept, wv/t2 lufian1practice


approved [] 1. adj áfandigendlic, áfandodlic, áfandod excellent; 2. adv ~ly áfandodlíce


April [] Aprelis m


apt [] adj numol fit for

arable land [] yrðland n

archangel [] héahboda m


archbishop [] arcebiscop m


archbishopric [] arcebiscopríce n, arceríce n


archdeacon [] arcedíacon m


architect [] héahcræftiga m


ardently [] adv léofwendum


arduous [] adjgéandýne


area of land about ¼ of a hide [] gierd landes f


Arian [] adj Arrianisc


aristocratic [] adj æðele noble


arm [] inner side of ~ innanearm m


armed company [] gárgetrum n


armed-band [] gárhéap m spear-band


armer [] æcerceorl m ploughman


armor [] gearwe f (usu pl) harness, gúðréaf n, gúðsceorp n, gúðscrúd n, gúðsearu2n


arms [] geatwe f pl equipments


army [] gefylce n band of men, getrum2 n legion; herefolc2n, landfyrd f; campweorod n host; ~ of foot-soldiers ganghere m; iron-clad ~ ísenhere m; native ~ innhere m; ~ from the north norðhere m; ~ of foot-soldiers ganghere m infantry


around [] 1. prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) near, prep w.a. ymbútan about, prep w.a. ábútan about; ~ about prep w.a. ábútan on the outside; 2. adv ymbe, ymb utan, ymbútan


arouse [] 1. one who ~s árǽrend m; 2. irreg wv/t1b áwreccan awake


arrange [] sv/t7 árǽdan settle, wv/t2 gerádian reckon with; wv/t2 instihtian appoint; wv/t2 fadian1guide


array [] proud ~ prass m


arrive [] sv/i1 gelíðan, sv/i4 ancuman


arrogance [] ánmédla m pride, prútscipe m pride, prútung f pride


arrogant [] adj prúd, prút proud, healsfæst


arrow [] arwe f, herestrǽl m, píl m dart [L pilum]; ~-head gád f spear-head; shower of ~s ísenscúr f


art [] cræft m skill, list m, f craft, prætt m craft; ~ of enchanting galdorcræft m incantation; ~ of grammar grammaticcræft m; ~ of teaching lár f preaching; false ~ léascræft m; goldsmith’s ~ goldsmiðu f; magic ~ galdorcræft m occult art; occult ~ galdorcræft m magic art


art not [] neart verb form


artery [] ǽdre f vein, géotend  m, geotendǽder f


artful intrigue [] inwitsearu n


artfully [] adv gamenlíce sportfully, nearwe


artifice [] lotwrenc m cunning


arts [] learned ~ gebregdstafas m pl literary arts; literary ~ gebregdstafas m pl learned arts


as [] 1. like ~ if… conj gelíce and …; 2. ~ far as prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) up to; ~ to prep w.d., rarely a. æt in respect to


as well…as [] conj ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and


ascend [] wv/t2 ástigian mount, wv/t2 clymmian climb


Ascension Day [] one of three processional days before ~ or Holy Thursday gangdæg m Perambulation days


ascent [] ástígnes f


ash [] 1. (burnt) ~ asce f; 2. baked on ~es adj ascbacen


ashamed [] 1. adj ǽwiscmód2abashed; 2. be ~ wv/i1b ásceaman


ashes [] ǽmerge f embers, æscegeswáp n cinders


ash-tree [] stump of an ~ æscstybb m


ask [] wv/t2 geǽrendian tell


ask [] wv/t2 giwian1, wv/t2 laðian invite; get by ~ing wv/t2 ábedecian, sv/t5 ábiddan obtain; ~ for sv/t5 ábiddan request


asked [] adj ábǽd, ábeden


asking [] geáscung f inquiry


aspen [] 1. cwicbéam m juniper; ~ bark cwicbéamrind f; 2. of ~ adj cwicbéamen


aspersion [] áwyrðung f stain


ass [] 1. he-~ assa m; she-~ assen f, assmyre f; 2. dun-colored like an ~ adj assedun


assail [] wv/t1b ymbhýpan press around


assault [] ǽhlýp m breach of the peace


assemble [] wv/r2 gadrian1, sv/t7 ábannan út call out, wv/r2 gadrian1; sv/t7 ábannan út call together

assembly [] gaderung1f, geþeaht f, n council, ymbcyme m convention, léodstefn m; laðung1f congregation; ~ of the men of a hundred hundred n, hundrað n

assert [] sv/t7 lǽtan1pretend, wv/t3 habban


asseveration [] cann f averment


assign [] sv/t7 lǽtan1allot; wv/t1a cennan1attribute


associate [] 1. adj geférlic; 2. geféra m comrade; 3. irreg wv/t1b geférlǽcan unite; ~ (with) wv/t2 gadrian1


associated [] adj geféred


assume [] sv/t4 niman1 accept; ~ to be wv/t2 prófian [L probare]


assumption [] áfangennes f reception


assured [] adj langtwidig lasting


assuredly! [] interj áfæstlá certainly!


Assyrian [] adj Assirisc


asthma [] angbréost n tightness of the chest


astonish [] wv/t1b áblícgan, wv/t1b ágælwan terrify; be ~ed wv/t1b ástyltan


astute [] adj prættig  cunning


astuteness []géapnes f


at [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (temporal) on, prep w.d. or a. (temporal) in in, prep w.a. ymbe (of time) about; prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) upon, prep w.d. or a. (local) in upon ;prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) near; prep w.d., rarely a. æt (causal) through; ~ the time of prep w.d., rarely a. æt (temporal) on; 2. adv ymbe, æt near; 3. prefix? æt-


at all [] adv á always

athlete [] plegmann m gymnosophist; female ~ plegestre f

athletic [] adj pleglic


atmosphere [] lyft f, m, n air


attack [] 1. anginn n onset, áflygennes f, gewealc n, níð m war, níðgetéon n; murderous ~ inwitscear m; 2. wv/t1b néosan, wv/t2 néosian visit with affliction; ~  (often followed by wordum) wv/t1b nǽgan1


attain [] sv/i3 geiernan get to, wv/t1b geféran accomplish


attempt [] wv/t2 fandian1(oft w.g., but also w.d., w.a.) try


attend [] wv/t1b cépan guard; ~ upon wv/t2 þegnian1w.d. minister to


attendant [] 1. cniht m servant; þegnhyse retainer; ~ member of a retinue ymbhringend m; 2. without an ~ adj cnihtléas


attention (needing ~) [] 1. adj ymbhýdig to be observed; 2. adv ymbhýdiglíce


attentive [] 1. adj carful careful; 2. adv ~ly carfullíce


attract [] wv/t2 loccian1 entice


attribute [] wv/t1a cennan1 assign; ~ (to) sv/t1 hlígan

augment [] wv/t1b íecan1 add to

August (month) [] Agustus m


austere [] adj gearowitol, gearwutol


austerity [] heardlicnes f


author of light [] léohtsáwend m


authority (ecclesiastical ~) [] láréowdóm m


autumn drought [] æfterhǽða m


avail [] of no ~ 1. adj náhtlic worthless; 2. ~ly adv náhtlíce


avail oneself to [] wv/t1b cépan betake oneself to


avarice [] gítsiendnes f, gítsung f greediness; wicked ~ náhtgítsung f


avenge [] sv/t5 áwrecan punish


avenger by necessity [] néadwraca m


averment [] cann f cognizance


avert [] wv/t1b ymbwendan turn away


avoid [] wv/t2 áwærian


await [] sv/t1 ábídan wait for; wv/t1b cépan receive; ~ eagerly wv/t2 cépnian


awake [] irreg wv/t1b áwreccan arouse, sv/t3 úp ábregdan start up, wv/t2áwacian


aware of [] adj gecýðig


away [] verb prefix á-


awl [] æl m piercer


axe [] ceorfæx f


Axe [] the river ~ Acsa m, Axa m


Axminster in Devonshire [] Acsan mynster n



back [] 1. ~ of axe ýr n?; 2. going ~ adj capiende retrograde; lying on the ~ capiende bent backwards; 3. ~ (in return) adv æfter thereupon

backward [] adj lætsum; bent ~s capiende thrown backwards; ~s (of motion) capiende going back; that can be read ~s in the same meter adj capiende; thrown ~s capiende lying on the back; ~s capiende bent backwards


bad [] 1. adj yfel (cmp wiersa, spl wiersta, wierresta, weorsta), gódléas evil, yfelic, yfellic evil; lýðre wicked; lýðerlic vile; láðwende2 hostile; cystléas worthless; náht poor; 2. ~ly adv yfelíce, yfellíce, yfle (cmp wiers/wyrs, spl wierrest/wyrrest/wyrst) evilly; lýðerlíce vilely; náhtlíce wickedly; 3. become ~ wv/t2 yfelian1 grow worse

baggy [] adjpohhede

bail [] inborh m security in cases of theft


bake [] sv/t6 ábacan, wv/t1b ábrǽdan


baked [] newly ~ adj níwbacen; ~ on ashes ascbacen


baker [] grístra m miller


balance [] 1. anmitta m scales; 2. ~ against irreg wv/t1b átellan wíð


bald [] adj andfeax, calu bare


ball [] æppel m anything round, clíewen n sphere, þóðer m, þóðor m sphere; ~ of thread or yarn clíewen n


Baltic Sea [] norðsǽ f


band [] nostle f fillet; ymbstandnes f, ymbstandennes f troop; armed-~ gárhéap m band of warriors; ~ of warriors gárhéap m; ~ of men gefylce n army; spear-~ gárhéap m armed-band


banish [] wv/t1b ýtan drive out


banner [] gierela1m


baptism [] Christian ~ crístennes f; laver of ~ fantbæð n baptismal water


baptismal font [] fanfæt n


baptismal water [] fant m, fantbæð n laver of baptism


bar [] clús f, clúse f [L clausum] bolt, clústor n [L claustrum] lock, loc n bolt


bare [] 1. adj calu bald; ídel void; nacod, nacud nude; 2. lay ~ wv/t1a ábarian disclose; make ~ wv/t1a ábarian disclose


barefaced [] adj nebwlátful shameless


bargain [] 1. céap m gain; nǽming f contract; loc n agreement; 2. wv/t2 céapian1trade


bark [] aspen ~ cwicbéamrind f; ~ of apple-tree apuldorrind f; ivy-~ ífigrind f; oak-~ ácrind f


barley paid as rent [] gafolbere m


barn-keeper [] gebrot m


barren [] adj íeðe2 desolate


barrier [] clústor n [L claustrum] bar


barter [] wv/t1b cýpan1 traffic


base [] adj gaf lewd, lýðre mean, lysu evil


basilisk [] fágwyrm m


basin [] céac m pitcher, læfel m bowl[L labellum], lempit f dish


basket [] cawl m, cýpe f vessel, leap m, gafolgyld n fiscus; fodder ~ for cattle yrfebin n; ~ for catching or keeping fish leap m


basket-weir [] a ~ cytwer m


bas-relief [] in ~ adj inheald embossed


bastard [] adj cifesboren


bath [] gannet’s ~ ganotesbæð n (i.e., the sea)


Bath [] Acemannes burh f, Acemannes ceaster f


bathe [] sv/t6 áwascan wash, wv/t2 lafian1wash


batten [] wv/t1b geswétlǽcan


battle [] 1. æscþracu f, lác2n, f strife, lindgelác n, camp m, n combat, campwíg n combat, gecamp m warfare, níðplega m fight, níðweorc n, gúð2f combat, handgemót2 n; gármitting f, gárgewinn2n fight with spears, gárrǽs m, gárþracu f [dat ~þræce], plega m, gúðgewinn2n; place of ~ æscsteall ?m, æscstede m; 2. brave in ~ adj níðheard2bold; 3. engage in ~ irreg v/t tógædre/tógædere/tógadere gán1

battle-friend [] gúðwine2m weapon

bay [] laur m laurel


be [] sv/i5 licgan1 remain; ~ present irreg v/i ætbéon


beach [] ýðláf2f shore


beak [] nebb n bill; ~-shaped thing [] nebb n beak


beaker [] líð n cup


beam [] léoma1m ray of light; weaver’s ~ lorg f, m, lorh f, m pole


bear [] sv/t4 beran, sv/t4 áberan carry, sv/t4 niman1bring, wv/t1b cépan take to; irreg wv/t1b gebringan produce; ~ (a child) sv/t4 áberan


bearable [] adj áberendlic


bearer [] key-~ cǽgbora m jailor


bearing [] gelǽte n [ON lǽti] manners


beast [] néat n animal; níetan n small animal


beat [] sv/t7 ábéatan strike, sv/t1 cnídan, wv/t1b pyrtan strike, wv/t2 þaccian1smack; wv/t2 púnian1bruise; wv/t1a clæppan throb; ~ or mark the bounds of land wv/t1b lǽdan


beaten by storms [] adv stormum ábéatne


beautiful [] 1. adj léoflic pleasant, ánlic; léoht resplendent, lufiendlic, lufigendlic lovely; 2. ~ly adv léoflíce


beautify [] irreg wv/t1b cyrtenlǽcan1make elegant


beauty [] cyrtenes f elegance, glǽm2m  splendor


because [] conj ac for; nú since


bed [] 1. bedd n; gang m path, gelege lair; leger n couch, legerbedd n; ~ of death néobedd2n corpse-bed; ~ of spirits néobedd2n bed of death; corpse-~ néobedd2n bed of death; sick ~ legerbedd n; 2. adj confined to ~ gelegered, gelegerod; 3. keep one’s ~ leger weardian


bed-chamber [] cot n, cote f cottage


bedeck [] wv/t2 ymbcæfian embroider around


bed-time [] gebedgiht f


bee [] enclosure for ~s ymbhaga m; swarm of ~s ymbe n; taxable swarm (of ~s) gafolheord f


beer [] small ~ æfterealu n


beetle [] ceafor m cock-chafer, ymel m; ~ or moth which flies by night nihtbutorfléoge f


before [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) next to; prep w.d. ǽr; prep w.a. ymbe (of time); 2. adv ymbe; just ~ hwéne ǽr; ~ that ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] previously; 3. conj ǽr þam (þe); ~ that ǽr ere, þǽrforan


beforehand [] adv ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] formerly, on ǽr, ǽr þissum formerly


beget [] wv/t1a cennan1 create, wv/t1b ástríenan2


beggar [] loddere m


begin (the weft) [] sv/t3 inweorpan


beginning [] anginn n; ǽwielm m source; ingang m ingress; the ~ of a month cálend m


behave towards [] sv/t7 lǽtan1treat


behavior [] ymbwendung f


behead [] wv/t2 héafdian


behind [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter after (local and temporal); prep w.d. æthindan after; 2. adj æfterweard following æftwanweard in the rear; æftanweard coming after; 3. adv æftewearde, on láste/last, æftan from behind; from ~ æftan behind; 4. leave ~ sv/t7 lǽtan1let alone, sv/t7 on bæc lǽtan1


behold [] interj lóc/lóca nu, lá! lo!, nú lo!


beholding [] ymbséon f regard


behoove [] wv/t2 ábehófian concern


being [] adj not ~ nǽrende; ptc [ne + wesan]


being together [] gæd n union


belch [] wv/t1b cylcan eructate; ~ out (in a contemptuous sense) wv/t1b cylcan utter; ~ up a thing wv/t1b cylcan


beleaguer [] wv/t2 ymbwícgian surround


belief [] créda m [L credo] confession of faith, léafa1m faith


believe [] 1. easy to ~ adj léafléoht; 2. wv/t1b, wv/i1b líefan1 trust


believing [] 1. adj geléafsum faithful, gelíefed pious, léafful1 orthodox (Christian); 2. adv ~ly léaffullíce


belittle [] wv/t2 lýtlian1


bell [] church-~ ciricbelle f; noon-~ nónbelle f; ringing of the noon-~ nónhring m


bellowing [] grymetung f, grymettung f roaring


belong to [] sv/i5 licgan1


belonging to the people generally [] adj ceorllic common


beloved [] 1. adj léof1 dear; 2. ~ one léof m friend


below [] adv neoðan, neoðane beneath, niðer beneath, niðere down


belt [] gyrdel m girdle; surrounding ~ ymbgang m circumference


bend [] 1. ymbbígnes f circuit; 2. wv/t1b ábégan bow, wv/t1b ábýgan bend down; ~ down wv/t1b ábégan bend, wv/t1b ábýgan bend


bending [] adj ábégendlic flexible; ~ around ymbbígnes f bend


beneath [] 1. situated ~ adj niðeweard; 2. adv neoðan, neoðane below; niðer downwards; from ~ neoðan, neoðane below


beneficial [] adj nytt helpful


benefit [] 1. ár f favor; gód n advantage, nytnes f use; ~s ár f ecclesiastical living; 2. wv/t2 gebrýcian, gebrýcsian profit


benign [] adj líðe (cmp lýðre, spl lýðrest?) gentle


bent [] adj géap crooked, gecrócod crooked; ~ backwards capiende lying on the back; ~ down niðerbogen; ~ downwards niðerheald


bequeath [] sv/t7 lǽtan1, wv/t1b lǽfan1leave


bequest [] ierfe n heritage, yrfeláf f inheritance


bereave [] wv/t1b ástýpan deprive


bereavement [] ástýpednes f, ástýpnes f privation


bereft (of) [] adj w.d.g. gefylled; adj w.g. léas devoid of


berries [] cluster of ivy-~ ífigcrop m, ífigcroppa m


berry [] corn n seed, cropp m, croppa m sprout; a bunch of ~s léactrog m, léactroc m; laurel-~ laurberige f


beset [] irreg wv/t1b ymbsellan enclose, wv/t1a ymbsettan surround; wv/t1b nierwan1, wv/t2 nierwian1 chasten


besides [] adv þǽrbufan; ~ that þǽrbufan


besiege [] sv/t5 ymbsittan surround


best [] the ~ of anything cyst f, m w. gen pl the choicest


bestowed [] adj gebritnod


betake oneself [] sv/t4 niman1 go; ~ to wv/t1b cépan avail oneself to


betray [] sv/t7 ingefeallan disclose, wv/t1a yppan1 reveal, wv/t1b lǽwan1 [Goth léwjan], wv/t2 ámeldian make known


betroth [] wv/t1b gehandfæstan


between [] prep w.d. ábitweonum


beyond [] 1. prep w.a. geondan, ymbútan outside; 2. adv ymbútan


bid [] sv/t2 ábéodan proclaim; ~ farewell to sv/t2 hǽl ábéodan wish one good luck


bill [] nebb n beak


billow [] ýð f flood


billows [] holmwylm m


billowy [] adj ýðig stormy


bind [] wv/t1b cyspan1 fetter, wv/t2 gefeterian2fetter; ~ around sv/t3 ymbbindan


binding [] gebundennes f obligation


bird [] lyftfléogend m; ~ of prey néfugol m; male ~ carlfugol m cock; sea-~ ganot m water-fowl, a supposed lýðrest?; pernex m [mistranslation of L pernix]; catching of ~s yltwist f; crop (of a ~) cropp m, croppa m; young ~ nest n brood


birth [] 1. cenning f parturition, ácennednes f, ácenning f; after-~ cildhama m; imperfect ~ lambyrd f; 2. of noble ~ adj æðelcund


birthday [] cennes f


birthplace [] cenningstów f


bit [] cáma m  [L] collar; ~ (of a bridle, bristling with points cenep m [ON kanpr]


bite into pieces [] sv/t1 ábítan gnaw


biting [] adj numol snappish; numol stinging


bitter [] make ~ or sour wv/t2 ábiterian, ábitrian embitter; turn ~ wv/i2 ábiterian, ábitrian


bittern [] cýta m kite; ? púr ?


black [] 1. coal-~ adj colsweart; 2. ~ centaury ísenhearde f knapweed


blackmail [] níedbád f exaction


blacksmith [] ísensmið m, ísenwyrhta m


blade [] gærswyrt f grass


blame [] 1. clearing from ~ lád f exculpation; 2. sv/t6, also wv/t1b léan, wv/t2 leahtrian1 accuse; 3. ~less adj leahtorléas faultless


blaming [] nǽting f


blandish [] irreg wv/t1b léasóleccan flatter


blanket [] tribute-~ gafolhwítel m tribute-whittle


blaspheme [] wv/t2 yfelsacian1, wv/t2 yfelsian1


blasphemer [] hierwend m, yfelsacend m


blasphemy [] hierwing f, yfelsacung f calumny, yfelsæc n?, yfelsung f


blast [] ǽðmm


bleach [] wv/t1a áblǽcan whiten


blemish [] áwierding f corruption; glemm m spot; ~ (in an object) fácen n fault


blind [] 1. adj ymeséne; 2. wv/t1b áblindan make blind; become ~ wv/i2 áblindian; make ~ wv/t1b áblindan blind


blinded [] adj áblend


blister [] pocc m pustule; ice-~ ísgeblǽd n


blood (man of royal ~) [] æðeling m nobleman


blood relation [] nýdmǽg1m, nýdmǽge1f cousin


blot out [] wv/t2 ádílegian, ádílgian, ádíligian destroy


blow [] 1. andslyht2m; 2. sv/t7 ábláwan blow away; wv/t1a pyffan puff, wv/t2 pyfian; sv/t7 ábláwan breathe; ~ an instrument wv/t1b plegan pipe; ~ away sv/t7 ábláwan breathe upon


blowing [] ábláwung f inflation


blowing fiercely (of flame) [] adj áblǽst


blunt [] wv/t1b ástyntan repress


blush [] wv/i2áblysian, wv/t2 áréodian redden


blushing [] áblysgung f, áblysung f shame


boast [] 1. gielpword n; 2. wv/t1b gealpettan


boaster [] gielpna m


boastfulness [] gealpettung f, gielpnes f


boasting [] empty ~ ídelgielp n vainglory


boat [] naca2m ship; small ~ ǽrendscip n skiff


bodily [] 1. adj líchamlic physical; 2. adv líchamlíce personally


bodily torment [] níedbád f


body [] líc n, lícfæt2n, limgesíð f; líchama m corpse; separation of soul and ~ gástgedál2n death; ~ of priests préosthéap m, préosthíred m


bog-myrtle [] gagel m? sweet gale


boil [] irreg v/t áwillan bring into commotion; sv/t2 áséoðan seethe, wv/i2 fámgian foam


boiled [] newly ~ adj nísoden


bold [] 1. adj cáf brave, cáflic, heardmód brave; céne, gárþríst daring; heardlic warlike; níðheard2 brave in battle; ~ in arms gárcéne bold in fight; ~ in fight gárcéne; 2. ~ly adv cáfe, cáflíce, céne brave, cénlíce; heardlíce in a warlike manner


boldness [] cáfscipe m alacrity, cénðu f, néðing f daring, nóð2f daring


bolt [] clús f, clúse f [L clausum] bar, loc n bar


bond [] internal ~ inbend m, f; iron ~ ísenbend2m, f fetter


bondage [] born in ~ adj ǽhtboren


bond-slave [] nýdþéwetling m


book [] ~ of canons canonbóc f; canonical ~s canones béc f pl [L canon]; Latin ~ lǽdenbóc f ~ of prescriptions lǽcebóc f; ~ of service for compline nihtsang m; ~ of the epistles pistolbóc f; ~s of the law ǽbéc f pl


booth  [] léafsele m place for shade


booty [] fang m plunder, lác n, f, herefeoh n, nóð2f plunder


border [] þerscold m, þerscwald m, þerscwold m, þerxold m, þerxwold m limit; northern ~ norðefes f

born [] adj geboren; ~ in bondage ǽhtboren; lawfully ~ ǽwumboren; low-~ ceorlboren not noble; new~ níwcend; ~ on the estate inbyrde

both [] 1. pron ǽghwæðer either; 2. ~…and  conj ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and

bottom [] niðernes f deepness

bought [] adj áboht


bound [] 1. adj gebunden; 2. not to be ~ irreg v/t nágan not owe


boundary [] landgemǽre n, landgemirce n frontier, landmearc n; north-west ~ norðwestgemǽre m; ~ of ploughed land yrðmearc f, landscearu f landmark


boundless [] adj grundléaslic vast


bountiful [] adj gifol generous


bounty [] cystignes f, cystines f goodness, glædmódnes f kindness


bow [] wv/t1b ábégan bend down

bowed [] adj ábogen; ~ down ábéag
bowl [] læfel m basin[L labellum]

box [] cæpse f [L capsa]; iron ~ yrsebin f; money ~ gafolgyld n fiscus


boy [] cniht m youth


boyhood [] cnihthád m youth, cniht m


boyish [] adj cnihtlic childish


boyishness [] cnihtwíse f


branch [] clyster n bunch; lim n; palm-~ palm m, palma m, palmtwig n


brass [] ár n copper


brave [] 1. adj cáf bold, céne, heardmód bold, heardhicgende2; ~ in battle níðheard2 bold; 2. ~ly adv cáfe, céne, heardlíce stoutly


brave [] adj þegnlic noble; ~ly adv þegnlíce manfully


brawl in a house [] infiht n, insócn f


bray (in a mortar) [] wv/t2 portian1


brazen vessel [] árfæt n


breach [] gebryce m fracture; ~ of the law lahbryce m; ~ of the peace ǽhlýp m assault


break [] sv/t4 ábrecan break down; ~ away sv/i3 áberstan escape; ~ down sv/t4 ábrecan break to pieces; ~ into sv/t5 inbrecan; ~ out sv/i3 áberstan burst out, sv/i3 út áberstan; ~ out, away, forth sv/i4 ábrecan; ~ out in pimples wv/t2 piplian show eruptions; ~ to pieces sv/t7 ábéatan strike, sv/t4 ábrecan break down; ~ up wv/t1b gebrýtan destroy


breaking [] gebryce m fracture


breast [] feorhloca m, gástcofa m; innoð m, f inside, gástcofa m spirit’s chamber


breath [] ǽðmm air, gást m


breathe [] sv/t7 ábláwan blow; ~ out wv/t1a ápyffan exhale; ~ upon sv/t7 ábláwan blow away, sv/t7 inbláwan inspire


breathing [] ǽðmm breath, inéðung f inspiration; hardness of ~ nirewett n


brethren [] gebróðor m pl, gebróðra m pl, gebróðru m pl  brothers


brewed [] adj gebrowen


bribe [] endeavor to ~ wv/t2 céapian1


bridesmaid [] hádswǽpe f


bridesman [] hádswǽpa m


bridle [] 1. geweald n; 2. wv/t2 ámídlian, wv/t2 gebrídlian restrain


briefly [] adv nearolíce closely


bright [] 1. adj léoht luminous, léohtlic radiant; hádor2clear; perennially ~ géartorht; 2. ~ly adv léohte brilliantly; hádre clearly


brightness [] glǽm2m brilliance, líhtnes f, hádor n clearness


brilliance [] glǽm2m gleam


brilliancy [] fágnes f variety of color


brilliant [] 1. adj léohtbǽre luminous; 2. ~ly adv léohte  brightly


bring [] irreg wv/t1b bringan, sv/t4 niman1carry, wv/t1b lǽdan1take; irreg wv/t1b gebringan lead; ~ before one wv/t2 geandwerdian present; ~ forth wv/t1a cennan1conceive, wv/t2 gehrifian, wv/t1b lǽdan1 produce; ~ forward wv/t1b inlǽdan lead up; ~ in irreg wv/t1b inbrengan, inbringan present, irreg wv/t1b ingebringan, sv/t4 ináberan, wv/t1b inlǽdan lead in; ~ into commotion irreg v/t áwillan boil; ~ low wv/t1b ábýgan subdue, wv/t2 niðerian1 depress; ~ out wv/t1a yppan1disclose; ~ to light wv/t1b ábǽran disclose; ~ up well wv/t2 geþéawian


bringer [] lǽdend m; ~ of evil tidings yfelberend m


bringing up [] infóster n rearing


Bristol Channel [] norðsǽ f northern sea


broad [] adj géap spacious


broil [] ingerec n


broken [] adj gebrocen, ábrocen; ~ up gebrócod afflicted


brooch [] préon m pin


brood [] nest n young bird


broom [] ceacga m furze


brother monk [] gehada m


brotherhood [] gebróðorscipe m fraternity; member of a ~ of related persons gilda1m


brothers [] gebróðra m pl, gebróðru m pl brethren; ~ collectively gebróðor m pl


brothership [] gebróðorscipe m brotherhood


brought [] adj gebroht

bruise [] wv/t2 púnian1 beat

bruised [] adj gebrýsed


bruising [] gebrýsednes f


brutish [] adv níetenlic animal


brutishness [] níetennnes f


buckle [] clofe f, gyrdelhring m girdle, fifele f [L fibula]


buffet [] wv/t1a plættan smack


buffoon [] glíwere m parasite, léasere m jester


build [] wv/t1b átimbran, wv/t2 átimbrian erect; wv/t2 ástemnian found; ~ nests wvt1b nistan, wv/t2 nistian, wv/t1b nistlan, wv/t2 nistlian


builder []church-~ circwyrhta m; city ~ ceasterwyrhta m


building [] ærn n store; ancient ~ ǽrsceaft f


bulbous [] adj clufeht, clufehte


bunch [] clyster n cluster, cropp m, croppa m cluster; a ~ of berries léactrog m, léactroc m


burden [] handhæf n


burdock [] cliðe f


burghers [] ceasterwaran1m pl citizens


burial [] gebyrgednes f; ~ place legerstów f


burn [] sv/i3 ábeornan take fire


burning [] 1. adj glowende glowing; 2. lígbryne2m fire, ál n fire; inbærnednes f, inbærnes f incense


burst out [] sv/i3 áberstan break out


bush [] gebrogne n


bushel [] cýf f vat


business [] ǽbod m, cierr m affair, intinga m matter; níed f errand


busy [] wv/t2 ábisgian occupy; be ~ with wv/t2 ábisgian engage in; ~ oneself wv/t1b plegan occupy oneself; ~ oneself with wv/t2 geimpian


but [] 1. conj ac, and; ~ also ac moreover; 2. adv gefæstlíce verily


butt [] wv/t2 potian goad


butter [] cúbutere f

buy [] wv/t1b cýpan1 barter, wv/t2 céapian1 


by [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (instrumental); prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) near; 2. adv ymb utan; ~ that (person or thing) þǽrbig, þǽrbie thereby


by no means [] adv náteshwón, náteþæshwón not at all


bystander [] ymbstandend m

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