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Modern English - Old English (Anglo Saxon) Dictionary A-B


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This is a Modern English - Old English online dictionary. The English language has evolved during the last 1600 years, undergoing extensive change, mainly during the Middle Ages. The English language has been brought to Great Britain by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who were groups of Germanic people who established themselves in Great Britain in the 5th century.

The language evolved during the next centuries, assimilating aspects of other languages with which it came in contact, like French and slowly took the form of the language we know today.

The English spoken between the arrival of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes in the 5th century and the late 11th century after the Norman Conquest in 1066 is known as Old English. From the late 11th century to the late 15th century the language evolved to Middle English. From the late 15th century to the late 17th century the language evolved to Early Modern English after the Great Vowel Shift, and to Modern English in the period from the late 17th to the present.

The Old English or Anglo Saxon English was not a single uniform language, as it exhibited distinct regional dialects with some variations, which slowly were fused together by the late 9th century. The four main regional dialects of Old English were West Saxon, Mercian, Kentish and Northumbrian. Each of those dialect were associated with different English kingdoms of Great Britain.

In the 9th century parts of eastern Great Britain including all of Northumbria and parts of Mercia, were conquered by the Vikings; while Wessex, the rest of Mercia and Kent were successfully defended and finally integrated to the Kingdom of Wessex.

As a result of the merge of the different kingdoms and their integration to Wessex, the West Saxon dialect prevailed as a necessity to standardise the language of government; so documents were written in West Saxon and that's why most of the surviving texts in Old English are written in West Saxon.

However Modern English spelling owes most to the Mercian dialect, as it was the dialect spoken in London. Nevertheless West Saxon was the dominant language during the period in which most surviving documents and literature in Old English was recorded.

The following online dictionary features the translation of Modern English terms to their Old English counterparts of the 5th - 11th centuries period.

 

 
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A

a [] name of the rune for ~ ác m

abase [] wv/t2 niðerian1oppress

 

abasement [] niðerung1f humiliation

 

abashed [] adj ǽwiscmód2ashamed

 

abbacy [] abboddóm m abbatial jurisdiction, abbodríce n abbey

 

abbatial jurisdiction [] abboddóm m abbacy

 

abbatial rank [] abbodhád m dignity

 

abbess [] abbodesse f

 

abbey [] abbodríce n abbacy; Anglo-Saxon ~ at York, afterwards St. Mary’s Galmanhó ?

 

abbot [] abbod m, abboda m [L. abbatem]; lack of an ~ abbodléast f

 

ABC [] ábécédé f alphabet

 

abduct [] sv/t3 nýdniman take by force

 

abduction [] nýdnimung f rapine

 

abide [] irreg v/i gebúan dwell; sv/t1 ábídan wait

 

ability [] cræft m skill; gód n virtue

 

Abingdon, in Berkshire [] Abban dún f

 

abjectly [] adv níðlíce

 

abjure [] sv/t5 æftercweðan renounce

 

ablative [] adj ætbrédendlic

 

able [] adj leoðufæst fast; numol good

 

abominable [] adj áwyrgedlic detestable, gehyspendlic

 

abortion [] áwegáworpnes f, an ~ ǽwyrp m

 

abounding [] 1. adj nyhtsum1abundant; 2. adv ~ly nyhtsumlíce

 

about [] 1. prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) around, prep w.a. ymbe (of time) at, prep w.d. or a. (temporal) in at; prep w.a. ymbe in regard to, prep w.a. ymbútan around, prep w.a. ábútan around; around ~ prep w.a. ábútan on the outside; prep w.d.i. æfter (object) for; 2. adv néah almost; (cmp néar; spl níehst); ymbe, ymb utan, ymbútan; ábútan nearly, néalíce nearly, néan nearly; ~ that place þǽrábútan

 

above [] adv ábúfan; over and ~ that þǽrbufan

 

abrogate [] wv/t2 lýtlian1 shorten

 

abscess [] gegaderednes f gathering

 

absence [] æfweardnes f

 

absent [] adj æfward, æfweard distant

 

abundance [] cystignes f, cystines f, genyhtsumung f

 

abundant [] 1. adj nyhtsum1abounding, þicce growing thickly; 2. adv ~ly nyhtsumlíce, genyhtlíce, neahhe1, neahhie1, neahhige1

 

abysmal [] adj neowol deep down

 

abyss [] æfgrynde n, nið n, grynde n, neowolnes f depth

 

accent [] accent m [L]

 

accept [] sv/t2 céosan1 approve, sv/t4 niman1assume

 

acceptable [] adj léofwende agreeable, lícwyrðe1pleasing

 

acceptance [] andfang n

 

accepted [] adj lícwyrðe1 recognized

 

access [] ingang m entrance; néalǽcung f approach, néosung1f

 

accessible [] adj gefére

 

accident [] gelimp n misfortune

accidentia [] adj gelimplic

 

accompanied [] causing or ~ by difficulty/hardship adj nearu oppressive

 

accompany [] wv/t2 geférscipian

 

accomplish [] wv/t1b geféran attain; wv/t1b lǽstan1carry out

 

accomplishment [] lást1n observance

 

accord [] of one’s own ~ adv gewealdes; of his own ~ (his) gewealdes

 

accordance [] in ~ with one’s nature or race adj geæðele natural

 

accordant [] adj ánswége harmonious

 

according to [] prep w.d. néah, prep w.d.i. æfter (causal) following

 

accost [] wv/t1b nǽgan12 speak to

 

account [] 1. gerád n reckoning; 2. on ~ of prep w.a. ymbe in regard to; 3. on no ~ adv náne þinga

 

accumulate [] sv/i7 ætflówan flow together

 

accumulation [] ypping f extent

 

accuracy [] gerád n

 

accurately [] adv nearolíce closely

 

accursed [] adj áwyrigende

 

accusation [] clearing from ~ lád f purgation

 

accuse [] sv/t1 ábetéon, wv/t1b ácustan,acusan [L], wv/t2 leahtrian1 blame, wv/t2 niðerian1

 

ache [] 1. jaw-~ céacádl f; 2. sv/i6 acan suffer pain

 

acknowledged [] adj geanwyrde known

 

acolyte [] ácolitus m [L], candelbora m

 

acorn [] áccærn m, áccorn m, æcern n

 

acquaintance [] cúðnes f knowledge, cýðnes1 f knowledge; cýðð f, cýððu f friendship

 

acquiescing [] adj geþafa consenting

 

acquisition [] geágnung f

 

acre [] 1. æcer m a certain quantity of land; an ~ æcersplott m; strip of land an ~ in extent, lying at the head of a field héafodæcer m; 2. by ~s adv æcermǽlum

 

act crookedly [] wv/t2 lytigian feign

 

act of feeding [] ǽt m, f, n eating

 

acting alone [] adv ánlaga

 

action [] anginn n onset; kind ~ lufu f; ~ of taking niming f

 

active [] 1. adj cáf prompt; ? gehweorf; 2. ~ly adv cáfe

 

Acton, Suffolk [] Acantún m

 

acute [] adj clǽne intellectual; more ~ gefrédra

 

adapted [] adj gerád conditioned

 

add to [] wv/t1b íecan1 increase, wv/t1b ætýcan increase

 

adder [] nǽdre f snake; ~-wort nǽdrewyrt f

 

addition [] ætéaca m

 

address [] wv/t1b nemnan speak to, wv/t2 nemnian speak to

 

addressing [] adj gecígendlic vocative

 

adduce [] irreg wv/t1b gebringan produce

 

adhere [] wv/t1b clengan, wv/t1b ætclíðan, sv/t1 clífan cleave, wv/t2 ætclifian

 

adherence to the rules of right conduct or method [] þéawfæstnes f discipline

 

adhesion [] ætfele m

 

adjourn [] wv/t2 ándagian1

 

administer [] wv/t2 þegnian1 serve an office

 

admire [] wv/t2 áwundrian wonder at

 

admission [] gecierrednes f entrance, infær n entry, infæreld n entrance

 

admitting [] adj w.g. geþæf agreeing to

 

adolescence [] geoguðhád m, geoguðhádnes f

 

adopt [] sv/t4 niman1 appropriate

 

adopted [] adj geágennod

 

adorn [] 1. wv/t1b glengan1decorate, wv/t1b geatwan equip; wv/t2 gearwian1 clothe; ~ with precious stones wv/t1b ástǽnan; 2. ~ed adj geatolic2magnificent; glengful decked out; 3. ~ment gierela1m apparel

 

adulation [] lyffetung f flattery

 

adulterer [] ǽwbreca m, nýdhǽmedre m

 

adulteress ? [] nýdhǽmestre f concubine

 

adultery [] hór n, ǽwbryce m, geligere n fornication, geligernes f concubinage

 

advance [] irreg v/i gán1proceed

 

advanced age [] æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2 old age

 

advanced in age [] adj gamolferhð old

advantage [] gód n benefit, gehýðnes f, notu f utility, hýðegung f, nytt f use, nyttung f profit

adventure oneself [] sv/t5 pléon w.g. expose to danger

 

adversary [] inwidda m evil one

 

advice [] þeaht n counsel, geþeaht f, n counsel, lár f exhortation

 

advise [] wv/t1b gelǽran enjoin, wv/t1b lǽran1urge

 

adviser [] geþeahta m couselor

 

adze [] adesa m, adese f hatchet

 

aerial [] adj lyften, lyftlic

 

affair [] cierr m business

 

affect with longing [] impersonal wv/t2 álangian

 

affection [] lufu f favor

 

affectionate [] adj lufiende

 

affinity [] néahsibb f near relationship

 

annoy; wv/t2 nearwian1cramp, wv/t3 yfle gehabban

 

afflicted [] adj gebrócod injured

 

affliction [] 1. gyrnstafas m pl injury, níð m oppression, níðhete2m torment; ~ caused by (Moses’) rod gierdwíte n, nýdcosting f; 2. visit with ~ wv/t1b néosan, wv/t2 néosian attack

 

afford [] wv/t1a ástellan supply

 

afloat [] adj áflote

 

aforementioned [] adj ǽrnemned

after [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter behind (local and temporal), prep w.d. æthindan behind; prep w.d.i. æfter (object) in pursuit of; prep w.a. ymbe (of time); 2. adj æfterweard further; yferra (cmp of ufan) subsequent; 3. adv æfter afterwards, æftum, ymbe, on láste/last; ~ that þǽræfter

after age [] æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2 later time

 

after-birth [] cildhama m

 

after-claim [] æftersprǽc f

 

afternoon meal [] nónmete m

 

afterwards [] 1. written ~ adj æfterwriten; 2. adv æfter then æfter þon/þæm/þisum, æfter þæm/þon/þan þe thereafter

 

again [] adv níwan stefne

 

against [] prep w.d.a. into to

 

agate [] gagátes m indecl, gagátstán m precious stone

 

age [] 1. ieldu f; advanced ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2old age; after ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2later time; an ~ of the world ieldu f; old ~ æfteryld2f, æfteryldo2advanced age; old ~ ieldu f old people; 2. adj advanced in ~ gamolferhð old; very ~d infród2experienced

 

aged [] adj gamol2old, gamolferhð old, geléfed sickly

 

agent [] involuntary ~ nýdwyrhta m

agile [] adj leoðucræftig, léoht quick

agitation [] ýðung f commotion

 

agree [] wv/t2 gadrian1 unite, wv/t2 þeahtian1; ~ to wv/i1a cierran1 be converted

 

agreeable [] adj léof1 pleasant; léoftǽl, léoftǽle loving; léofwende acceptable

 

agreeing [] adj geþafa consenting, geþafsum consenting

 

agreeing to [] adj w.g. geþæf consenting to

 

agreement [] ánnes f covenant; geþafsumnes f; loc n settlement

 

agrimony [] gárclife f, agrimonia m

 

ah! [] interj oh!

 

aid [] wv/t1b andfylstan

 

air [] 1. lyft f, m, n sky; lyfthelm2 m mist; ǽðmm breath; 2. adj of the ~ lyften

 

ait [] iggað m, iggoð m, ígeoð m, ígoð m small island

 

alacrity [] cáfscipe m boldness

 

alas! [] interj ǽ, wá lá wá!

 

alb [] albe f [L] white garment

 

alder [] aler m, alor m, alr m

 

alder-wort [] nǽddrewinde f

 

Alexandrian [] adj Alexandrinesc

 

alien [] hostile ~ níðgæst2m fell demon

 

alienation [] áfremðung f

 

alight [] wv/t1b líhtan dismount

 

alive [] 1. adj gangende; 2. adv on life, tó life, lífes

 

alkalized water [] léag f lye

 

all [] 1. adj ǽghwilc every one, gehwilc each; 2. at ~ adv á always; 3. pron, noun ǽlc every; 4. noun ǽlc every;

 

Alleluia (the ~) [] Alleluia m

 

alleviate [] wv/t1b líhtan1 relieve

 

alleviation [] líhtung f relief, liss f [formerly líðs]

 

allot [] sv/t7 lǽtan1assign

 

allow [] sv/t7 lǽtan1; wv/t1b líefan1 concede; ~ to escape sv/t7 lǽtan1let out; ~ to remain sv/t7 lǽtan1let alone

 

allowed [] not to be ~ irreg v/t nágan have no right to

 

all-powerful [] adj ælcræftig almighty

 

allure [] sv/t6 áspanan seduce

 

allurement [] léassponung f, ymbspænning f

 

almighty [] adj ælcræftig all-powerful

 

almost [] adv néah nearly (cmp néar; spl níehst); lýtesná, lýtesne, lýtestne nearly

 

alms [] ælmesgifu f charity

 

almsgiving [] ælmeshand f charitableness, ælmessylen f

 

aloe [] alewe f

 

aloft [] adv on lyfte

 

alone [] adv ánlíepig, ánlípig, ánlípe, ánlípie only; ánum solely; acting ~ ánlaga

 

along [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter after (local and temporal); prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) about, prep w.g. andlang; 2. adv ymbe

 

alphabet [] ábécédé f ABC

 

already [] adv ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] formerly; nú þá now

 

altar [] altarm, altarem, alterm, altrem [L], glédstede2m

 

alteration [] áwendednes f, áwendendnes f change

 

altogether [] adv ǽghwæs entirely

 

alum [] ælifn f

 

always [] adv á for ever, ǽfre perpetually, gehwǽr on every occasion

 

am not [] neom verb form

 

amaze [] wv/t2 ámasian confound

 

ambassador [] ǽrendraca m messenger

 

ambrosia [] ambrósie f

 

ambush [] of ~ adj insǽte dependant

amen [] interj géalágé [géa lá géa] yea

amiable [] 1. adj luflic loving; 2. ~ly adv luflíce

 

amicable settlement [] lufu f

 

among [] prep w.d. ámang amongst, prep w.d. or a. (local) in in

 

amongst [] prep w.d. ámang among

 

amphitheater [] plegstów f gymnasium

 

ample [] adj ginn2spacious

 

amuse oneself [] wv/t1b plegan play

 

amusement [] gamenn pastime

 

ancestor [] cnéowmǽg m relation; ~s ieldra pl noun parents

 

anchorite [] ánbúend m hermit, ánsetla m hermit

 

ancient [] 1. adj gamol2old; 2. ~ building ǽrsceaft f; ~ world ǽrworuld f

 

and [] conj and; both…~ ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and

 

aneurism [] neurisn f

 

anew [] adv níwlinga, níwunga newly

 

angel [] ǽrendgást m, gást m good spirit, ǽrendraca m messenger, ár2 m herald

 

anger [] 1. ábylgnes f wrath; anda m envy; ábyligd f; ǽbylga m, ǽbylgnes f offence, ǽbylgð f, ǽbylgðu f offence, grama m rage, ǽbylgð f, ǽbylgðu f, æfðanc m, æfðanca m displeasure, iernes f, ierre n, ierscipe m, iersung f; níðgrama m malice; 2. wv/t1b ábylgan offend; 3. adj ~ed abealh, ábolgen

 

angle [] angel m hook

 

Anglen, a district in Schleswig, from which the Angles came [] Angel n

 

Angles [] norðléode m pl, the ~ Angle m pl

angrily [] adv grame fiercely, ierrenga fiercely

angry [] 1. adj gram hostile, gealgmód2gloomy/ furious, gealg sad; ierlic vehement, ierre fierce; very ~ ierreðweorh; 2. be ~ with wv/t2 iersian1 rage, sv/t3 ábelgan; make ~ sv/t3 ábelgan irritate, wv/t1b ábǽligan offend, wv/t1b geæbiligan offend

 

anguish [] 1. pín f [L poena] pain; 2. be in ~ wv/i2 angian1

 

animal [] 1. néat n beast; kind of ~ níetencynn n; maimed ~? gádinca m; savage ~ gásrícm; small ~ níetan n beast; 2. adv níetenlic brutish; like an ~ níetenlíce

 

ankle [] ancléow n, ancléowe f

 

annihilate [] wv/t2 ádílegian, ádílgian, ádíligian devastate

 

anniversary [] gehwyrft géares m, ymbryne m circuit; ~ of a death léorednes1f

 

announce [] sv/t2 ábéodan declare, wv/t2 ábodian proclaim, sv/t7 ábannan proclaim, wv/t1b ácýðan proclaim, sv/t7 ingefeallan proclaim, sv/t7 ábannan publish

 

annoy [] wv/t1b nǽtan1 afflict

 

annoyance [] láð n insult

 

annual service [] géarþénung f

 

anoint [] wv/t1b lýðran smear, wv/t2 gefǽttian, wv/t2 áfǽttian fatten, wv/t2 geasmirian smear

 

Anointed One [] Crist m Christ

 

answer [] 1. andswaru f, andwyrde n, andcwiss f; ǽrende n news; 2. wv/t2 andswarian1, wv/t1b andwyrdan1, andwyrdian1 , wv/t2 geandswarian

 

ant [] ǽmette f emmet

 

anthem [] antefn m antiphon, capitol m, capitul m, capitula m

 

ant-hill [] ǽmetbed n, ǽmethyll m

 

Antichrist [] Antecrist m [L]

 

antimony [] nebsealf f

 

antiphon [] antefn m anthem

 

antiquity [] gefyrnnes f

 

anvil [] anfealt f, anfilt n, anfilte n

 

anxiety [] angnes f fear, nearones f distress; caru f concern, carfulnes f care, gíeming f care, gíemnes f care, ymbhoga m care; ymbhygd f, ymbhýdignes f solicitude; sad ~ carsorg f

 

anxious [] 1. adj geænged troubled; ymbhýdig, ymbhýdiglic careful; carig2sorrowful, carful sad; 2. ~ly adv nearwe, ymbhýdiglíce; carfullíce sadly; 3. be ~ wv/t2 carian care for; be ~ about wv/i2 ymbhogian

 

any [] 1. adj ǽghwilc, gehwilc some, ǽlc; 2. adj, pron ǽlc; 3. adv ~ at all ǽfre ǽlc, ǽfre ǽnig

 

any one [] pron áhwá, gehwá (masc, fem), gehwæt (neut) whoever, áhwæðer

 

anything [] pron ǽghwæt, áhwæt, áhwæðer

 

anywhere [] adv ǽghwǽr; ǽghwider  in any direction, áhwǽr

 

apartment [] clýsung f enclosure; inn n lodging

 

ape [] apa m

 

apologist [] lǽdend m excuser

 

apology [] ládung f  defense

 

apostate [] 1. adj áworpen destroyed; 2. apostata m

 

apostle [] ǽrendraca m messenger, postol m, ár2m messenger

 

apostolic [] adj apostolic

 

apostolic letter [] pistol m [L epistola]

apparel [] gierela1m dress

appeal to [] wv/t1b ingecígan, ingecégan invoke

 

appear to men [] irreg v/t on tún gán1

 

appearance [] fix a day for ~ wv/t2 ándagian1

 

applaud [] wv/t1b plegan clap the hands

 

applause [] plega m

 

apple [] æppel m; kind of ~ æppelcynn n; ~ of the eye æppel m; gall-~ galloc m comfrey; ~-orchard apuldortún m; ~-pip æppelcyrnel n; bark of ~-tree apuldorrind f; ~-tree apulder f, m, apuldor f, m; ~-vessel æppelfæt n

 

appoint [] sv/t7 árǽdan prepare, wv/t1a ástellan display, sv/t7 ingefeallan  announce; wv/t2 instihtian arrange; wv/t2 namian1nominate; ~ a day or term wv/t2 geándagian

 

appointed day [] ándaga m

 

apprehend [] wv/t2 gelangian seize

 

approach [] 1. néalǽcung f access; 2. irreg wv/t1b w.d. néalǽcan; wv/t1b nǽgan12 accost; ~ the shore sv/t7 gelǽtan néah land

 

appropriate [] adj gehýðe convenient

 

appropriate [] sv/t4 niman1 adopt

 

approve [] sv/t2 céosan1 accept, wv/t2 lufian1practice

 

approved [] 1. adj áfandigendlic, áfandodlic, áfandod excellent; 2. adv ~ly áfandodlíce

 

April [] Aprelis m

 

apt [] adj numol fit for

arable land [] yrðland n

archangel [] héahboda m

 

archbishop [] arcebiscop m

 

archbishopric [] arcebiscopríce n, arceríce n

 

archdeacon [] arcedíacon m

 

architect [] héahcræftiga m

 

ardently [] adv léofwendum

 

arduous [] adjgéandýne

 

area of land about ¼ of a hide [] gierd landes f

 

Arian [] adj Arrianisc

 

aristocratic [] adj æðele noble

 

arm [] inner side of ~ innanearm m

 

armed company [] gárgetrum n

 

armed-band [] gárhéap m spear-band

 

armer [] æcerceorl m ploughman

 

armor [] gearwe f (usu pl) harness, gúðréaf n, gúðsceorp n, gúðscrúd n, gúðsearu2n

 

arms [] geatwe f pl equipments

 

army [] gefylce n band of men, getrum2 n legion; herefolc2n, landfyrd f; campweorod n host; ~ of foot-soldiers ganghere m; iron-clad ~ ísenhere m; native ~ innhere m; ~ from the north norðhere m; ~ of foot-soldiers ganghere m infantry

 

around [] 1. prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) near, prep w.a. ymbútan about, prep w.a. ábútan about; ~ about prep w.a. ábútan on the outside; 2. adv ymbe, ymb utan, ymbútan

 

arouse [] 1. one who ~s árǽrend m; 2. irreg wv/t1b áwreccan awake

 

arrange [] sv/t7 árǽdan settle, wv/t2 gerádian reckon with; wv/t2 instihtian appoint; wv/t2 fadian1guide

 

array [] proud ~ prass m

 

arrive [] sv/i1 gelíðan, sv/i4 ancuman

 

arrogance [] ánmédla m pride, prútscipe m pride, prútung f pride

 

arrogant [] adj prúd, prút proud, healsfæst

 

arrow [] arwe f, herestrǽl m, píl m dart [L pilum]; ~-head gád f spear-head; shower of ~s ísenscúr f

 

art [] cræft m skill, list m, f craft, prætt m craft; ~ of enchanting galdorcræft m incantation; ~ of grammar grammaticcræft m; ~ of teaching lár f preaching; false ~ léascræft m; goldsmith’s ~ goldsmiðu f; magic ~ galdorcræft m occult art; occult ~ galdorcræft m magic art

 

art not [] neart verb form

 

artery [] ǽdre f vein, géotend  m, geotendǽder f

 

artful intrigue [] inwitsearu n

 

artfully [] adv gamenlíce sportfully, nearwe

 

artifice [] lotwrenc m cunning

 

arts [] learned ~ gebregdstafas m pl literary arts; literary ~ gebregdstafas m pl learned arts

 

as [] 1. like ~ if… conj gelíce and …; 2. ~ far as prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) up to; ~ to prep w.d., rarely a. æt in respect to

 

as well…as [] conj ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and

 

ascend [] wv/t2 ástigian mount, wv/t2 clymmian climb

 

Ascension Day [] one of three processional days before ~ or Holy Thursday gangdæg m Perambulation days

 

ascent [] ástígnes f

 

ash [] 1. (burnt) ~ asce f; 2. baked on ~es adj ascbacen

 

ashamed [] 1. adj ǽwiscmód2abashed; 2. be ~ wv/i1b ásceaman

 

ashes [] ǽmerge f embers, æscegeswáp n cinders

 

ash-tree [] stump of an ~ æscstybb m

 

ask [] wv/t2 geǽrendian tell

 

ask [] wv/t2 giwian1, wv/t2 laðian invite; get by ~ing wv/t2 ábedecian, sv/t5 ábiddan obtain; ~ for sv/t5 ábiddan request

 

asked [] adj ábǽd, ábeden

 

asking [] geáscung f inquiry

 

aspen [] 1. cwicbéam m juniper; ~ bark cwicbéamrind f; 2. of ~ adj cwicbéamen

 

aspersion [] áwyrðung f stain

 

ass [] 1. he-~ assa m; she-~ assen f, assmyre f; 2. dun-colored like an ~ adj assedun

 

assail [] wv/t1b ymbhýpan press around

 

assault [] ǽhlýp m breach of the peace

 

assemble [] wv/r2 gadrian1, sv/t7 ábannan út call out, wv/r2 gadrian1; sv/t7 ábannan út call together

assembly [] gaderung1f, geþeaht f, n council, ymbcyme m convention, léodstefn m; laðung1f congregation; ~ of the men of a hundred hundred n, hundrað n

assert [] sv/t7 lǽtan1pretend, wv/t3 habban

 

asseveration [] cann f averment

 

assign [] sv/t7 lǽtan1allot; wv/t1a cennan1attribute

 

associate [] 1. adj geférlic; 2. geféra m comrade; 3. irreg wv/t1b geférlǽcan unite; ~ (with) wv/t2 gadrian1

 

associated [] adj geféred

 

assume [] sv/t4 niman1 accept; ~ to be wv/t2 prófian [L probare]

 

assumption [] áfangennes f reception

 

assured [] adj langtwidig lasting

 

assuredly! [] interj áfæstlá certainly!

 

Assyrian [] adj Assirisc

 

asthma [] angbréost n tightness of the chest

 

astonish [] wv/t1b áblícgan, wv/t1b ágælwan terrify; be ~ed wv/t1b ástyltan

 

astute [] adj prættig  cunning

 

astuteness []géapnes f

 

at [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (temporal) on, prep w.d. or a. (temporal) in in, prep w.a. ymbe (of time) about; prep w.d.a. ymbe (of place) upon, prep w.d. or a. (local) in upon ;prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) near; prep w.d., rarely a. æt (causal) through; ~ the time of prep w.d., rarely a. æt (temporal) on; 2. adv ymbe, æt near; 3. prefix? æt-

 

at all [] adv á always

athlete [] plegmann m gymnosophist; female ~ plegestre f

athletic [] adj pleglic

 

atmosphere [] lyft f, m, n air

 

attack [] 1. anginn n onset, áflygennes f, gewealc n, níð m war, níðgetéon n; murderous ~ inwitscear m; 2. wv/t1b néosan, wv/t2 néosian visit with affliction; ~  (often followed by wordum) wv/t1b nǽgan1

 

attain [] sv/i3 geiernan get to, wv/t1b geféran accomplish

 

attempt [] wv/t2 fandian1(oft w.g., but also w.d., w.a.) try

 

attend [] wv/t1b cépan guard; ~ upon wv/t2 þegnian1w.d. minister to

 

attendant [] 1. cniht m servant; þegnhyse retainer; ~ member of a retinue ymbhringend m; 2. without an ~ adj cnihtléas

 

attention (needing ~) [] 1. adj ymbhýdig to be observed; 2. adv ymbhýdiglíce

 

attentive [] 1. adj carful careful; 2. adv ~ly carfullíce

 

attract [] wv/t2 loccian1 entice

 

attribute [] wv/t1a cennan1 assign; ~ (to) sv/t1 hlígan

augment [] wv/t1b íecan1 add to

August (month) [] Agustus m

 

austere [] adj gearowitol, gearwutol

 

austerity [] heardlicnes f

 

author of light [] léohtsáwend m

 

authority (ecclesiastical ~) [] láréowdóm m

 

autumn drought [] æfterhǽða m

 

avail [] of no ~ 1. adj náhtlic worthless; 2. ~ly adv náhtlíce

 

avail oneself to [] wv/t1b cépan betake oneself to

 

avarice [] gítsiendnes f, gítsung f greediness; wicked ~ náhtgítsung f

 

avenge [] sv/t5 áwrecan punish

 

avenger by necessity [] néadwraca m

 

averment [] cann f cognizance

 

avert [] wv/t1b ymbwendan turn away

 

avoid [] wv/t2 áwærian

 

await [] sv/t1 ábídan wait for; wv/t1b cépan receive; ~ eagerly wv/t2 cépnian

 

awake [] irreg wv/t1b áwreccan arouse, sv/t3 úp ábregdan start up, wv/t2áwacian

 

aware of [] adj gecýðig

 

away [] verb prefix á-

 

awl [] æl m piercer

 

axe [] ceorfæx f

 

Axe [] the river ~ Acsa m, Axa m

 

Axminster in Devonshire [] Acsan mynster n

 

B

back [] 1. ~ of axe ýr n?; 2. going ~ adj capiende retrograde; lying on the ~ capiende bent backwards; 3. ~ (in return) adv æfter thereupon

backward [] adj lætsum; bent ~s capiende thrown backwards; ~s (of motion) capiende going back; that can be read ~s in the same meter adj capiende; thrown ~s capiende lying on the back; ~s capiende bent backwards

 

bad [] 1. adj yfel (cmp wiersa, spl wiersta, wierresta, weorsta), gódléas evil, yfelic, yfellic evil; lýðre wicked; lýðerlic vile; láðwende2 hostile; cystléas worthless; náht poor; 2. ~ly adv yfelíce, yfellíce, yfle (cmp wiers/wyrs, spl wierrest/wyrrest/wyrst) evilly; lýðerlíce vilely; náhtlíce wickedly; 3. become ~ wv/t2 yfelian1 grow worse

baggy [] adjpohhede

bail [] inborh m security in cases of theft

 

bake [] sv/t6 ábacan, wv/t1b ábrǽdan

 

baked [] newly ~ adj níwbacen; ~ on ashes ascbacen

 

baker [] grístra m miller

 

balance [] 1. anmitta m scales; 2. ~ against irreg wv/t1b átellan wíð

 

bald [] adj andfeax, calu bare

 

ball [] æppel m anything round, clíewen n sphere, þóðer m, þóðor m sphere; ~ of thread or yarn clíewen n

 

Baltic Sea [] norðsǽ f

 

band [] nostle f fillet; ymbstandnes f, ymbstandennes f troop; armed-~ gárhéap m band of warriors; ~ of warriors gárhéap m; ~ of men gefylce n army; spear-~ gárhéap m armed-band

 

banish [] wv/t1b ýtan drive out

 

banner [] gierela1m

 

baptism [] Christian ~ crístennes f; laver of ~ fantbæð n baptismal water

 

baptismal font [] fanfæt n

 

baptismal water [] fant m, fantbæð n laver of baptism

 

bar [] clús f, clúse f [L clausum] bolt, clústor n [L claustrum] lock, loc n bolt

 

bare [] 1. adj calu bald; ídel void; nacod, nacud nude; 2. lay ~ wv/t1a ábarian disclose; make ~ wv/t1a ábarian disclose

 

barefaced [] adj nebwlátful shameless

 

bargain [] 1. céap m gain; nǽming f contract; loc n agreement; 2. wv/t2 céapian1trade

 

bark [] aspen ~ cwicbéamrind f; ~ of apple-tree apuldorrind f; ivy-~ ífigrind f; oak-~ ácrind f

 

barley paid as rent [] gafolbere m

 

barn-keeper [] gebrot m

 

barren [] adj íeðe2 desolate

 

barrier [] clústor n [L claustrum] bar

 

barter [] wv/t1b cýpan1 traffic

 

base [] adj gaf lewd, lýðre mean, lysu evil

 

basilisk [] fágwyrm m

 

basin [] céac m pitcher, læfel m bowl[L labellum], lempit f dish

 

basket [] cawl m, cýpe f vessel, leap m, gafolgyld n fiscus; fodder ~ for cattle yrfebin n; ~ for catching or keeping fish leap m

 

basket-weir [] a ~ cytwer m

 

bas-relief [] in ~ adj inheald embossed

 

bastard [] adj cifesboren

 

bath [] gannet’s ~ ganotesbæð n (i.e., the sea)

 

Bath [] Acemannes burh f, Acemannes ceaster f

 

bathe [] sv/t6 áwascan wash, wv/t2 lafian1wash

 

batten [] wv/t1b geswétlǽcan

 

battle [] 1. æscþracu f, lác2n, f strife, lindgelác n, camp m, n combat, campwíg n combat, gecamp m warfare, níðplega m fight, níðweorc n, gúð2f combat, handgemót2 n; gármitting f, gárgewinn2n fight with spears, gárrǽs m, gárþracu f [dat ~þræce], plega m, gúðgewinn2n; place of ~ æscsteall ?m, æscstede m; 2. brave in ~ adj níðheard2bold; 3. engage in ~ irreg v/t tógædre/tógædere/tógadere gán1

battle-friend [] gúðwine2m weapon

bay [] laur m laurel

 

be [] sv/i5 licgan1 remain; ~ present irreg v/i ætbéon

 

beach [] ýðláf2f shore

 

beak [] nebb n bill; ~-shaped thing [] nebb n beak

 

beaker [] líð n cup

 

beam [] léoma1m ray of light; weaver’s ~ lorg f, m, lorh f, m pole

 

bear [] sv/t4 beran, sv/t4 áberan carry, sv/t4 niman1bring, wv/t1b cépan take to; irreg wv/t1b gebringan produce; ~ (a child) sv/t4 áberan

 

bearable [] adj áberendlic

 

bearer [] key-~ cǽgbora m jailor

 

bearing [] gelǽte n [ON lǽti] manners

 

beast [] néat n animal; níetan n small animal

 

beat [] sv/t7 ábéatan strike, sv/t1 cnídan, wv/t1b pyrtan strike, wv/t2 þaccian1smack; wv/t2 púnian1bruise; wv/t1a clæppan throb; ~ or mark the bounds of land wv/t1b lǽdan

 

beaten by storms [] adv stormum ábéatne

 

beautiful [] 1. adj léoflic pleasant, ánlic; léoht resplendent, lufiendlic, lufigendlic lovely; 2. ~ly adv léoflíce

 

beautify [] irreg wv/t1b cyrtenlǽcan1make elegant

 

beauty [] cyrtenes f elegance, glǽm2m  splendor

 

because [] conj ac for; nú since

 

bed [] 1. bedd n; gang m path, gelege lair; leger n couch, legerbedd n; ~ of death néobedd2n corpse-bed; ~ of spirits néobedd2n bed of death; corpse-~ néobedd2n bed of death; sick ~ legerbedd n; 2. adj confined to ~ gelegered, gelegerod; 3. keep one’s ~ leger weardian

 

bed-chamber [] cot n, cote f cottage

 

bedeck [] wv/t2 ymbcæfian embroider around

 

bed-time [] gebedgiht f

 

bee [] enclosure for ~s ymbhaga m; swarm of ~s ymbe n; taxable swarm (of ~s) gafolheord f

 

beer [] small ~ æfterealu n

 

beetle [] ceafor m cock-chafer, ymel m; ~ or moth which flies by night nihtbutorfléoge f

 

before [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) next to; prep w.d. ǽr; prep w.a. ymbe (of time); 2. adv ymbe; just ~ hwéne ǽr; ~ that ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] previously; 3. conj ǽr þam (þe); ~ that ǽr ere, þǽrforan

 

beforehand [] adv ǽr [cmp ǽror; spl ǽrost, ǽrest, ǽrst] formerly, on ǽr, ǽr þissum formerly

 

beget [] wv/t1a cennan1 create, wv/t1b ástríenan2

 

beggar [] loddere m

 

begin (the weft) [] sv/t3 inweorpan

 

beginning [] anginn n; ǽwielm m source; ingang m ingress; the ~ of a month cálend m

 

behave towards [] sv/t7 lǽtan1treat

 

behavior [] ymbwendung f

 

behead [] wv/t2 héafdian

 

behind [] 1. prep w.d.i. æfter after (local and temporal); prep w.d. æthindan after; 2. adj æfterweard following æftwanweard in the rear; æftanweard coming after; 3. adv æftewearde, on láste/last, æftan from behind; from ~ æftan behind; 4. leave ~ sv/t7 lǽtan1let alone, sv/t7 on bæc lǽtan1

 

behold [] interj lóc/lóca nu, lá! lo!, nú lo!

 

beholding [] ymbséon f regard

 

behoove [] wv/t2 ábehófian concern

 

being [] adj not ~ nǽrende; ptc [ne + wesan]

 

being together [] gæd n union

 

belch [] wv/t1b cylcan eructate; ~ out (in a contemptuous sense) wv/t1b cylcan utter; ~ up a thing wv/t1b cylcan

 

beleaguer [] wv/t2 ymbwícgian surround

 

belief [] créda m [L credo] confession of faith, léafa1m faith

 

believe [] 1. easy to ~ adj léafléoht; 2. wv/t1b, wv/i1b líefan1 trust

 

believing [] 1. adj geléafsum faithful, gelíefed pious, léafful1 orthodox (Christian); 2. adv ~ly léaffullíce

 

belittle [] wv/t2 lýtlian1

 

bell [] church-~ ciricbelle f; noon-~ nónbelle f; ringing of the noon-~ nónhring m

 

bellowing [] grymetung f, grymettung f roaring

 

belong to [] sv/i5 licgan1

 

belonging to the people generally [] adj ceorllic common

 

beloved [] 1. adj léof1 dear; 2. ~ one léof m friend

 

below [] adv neoðan, neoðane beneath, niðer beneath, niðere down

 

belt [] gyrdel m girdle; surrounding ~ ymbgang m circumference

 

bend [] 1. ymbbígnes f circuit; 2. wv/t1b ábégan bow, wv/t1b ábýgan bend down; ~ down wv/t1b ábégan bend, wv/t1b ábýgan bend

 

bending [] adj ábégendlic flexible; ~ around ymbbígnes f bend

 

beneath [] 1. situated ~ adj niðeweard; 2. adv neoðan, neoðane below; niðer downwards; from ~ neoðan, neoðane below

 

beneficial [] adj nytt helpful

 

benefit [] 1. ár f favor; gód n advantage, nytnes f use; ~s ár f ecclesiastical living; 2. wv/t2 gebrýcian, gebrýcsian profit

 

benign [] adj líðe (cmp lýðre, spl lýðrest?) gentle

 

bent [] adj géap crooked, gecrócod crooked; ~ backwards capiende lying on the back; ~ down niðerbogen; ~ downwards niðerheald

 

bequeath [] sv/t7 lǽtan1, wv/t1b lǽfan1leave

 

bequest [] ierfe n heritage, yrfeláf f inheritance

 

bereave [] wv/t1b ástýpan deprive

 

bereavement [] ástýpednes f, ástýpnes f privation

 

bereft (of) [] adj w.d.g. gefylled; adj w.g. léas devoid of

 

berries [] cluster of ivy-~ ífigcrop m, ífigcroppa m

 

berry [] corn n seed, cropp m, croppa m sprout; a bunch of ~s léactrog m, léactroc m; laurel-~ laurberige f

 

beset [] irreg wv/t1b ymbsellan enclose, wv/t1a ymbsettan surround; wv/t1b nierwan1, wv/t2 nierwian1 chasten

 

besides [] adv þǽrbufan; ~ that þǽrbufan

 

besiege [] sv/t5 ymbsittan surround

 

best [] the ~ of anything cyst f, m w. gen pl the choicest

 

bestowed [] adj gebritnod

 

betake oneself [] sv/t4 niman1 go; ~ to wv/t1b cépan avail oneself to

 

betray [] sv/t7 ingefeallan disclose, wv/t1a yppan1 reveal, wv/t1b lǽwan1 [Goth léwjan], wv/t2 ámeldian make known

 

betroth [] wv/t1b gehandfæstan

 

between [] prep w.d. ábitweonum

 

beyond [] 1. prep w.a. geondan, ymbútan outside; 2. adv ymbútan

 

bid [] sv/t2 ábéodan proclaim; ~ farewell to sv/t2 hǽl ábéodan wish one good luck

 

bill [] nebb n beak

 

billow [] ýð f flood

 

billows [] holmwylm m

 

billowy [] adj ýðig stormy

 

bind [] wv/t1b cyspan1 fetter, wv/t2 gefeterian2fetter; ~ around sv/t3 ymbbindan

 

binding [] gebundennes f obligation

 

bird [] lyftfléogend m; ~ of prey néfugol m; male ~ carlfugol m cock; sea-~ ganot m water-fowl, a supposed lýðrest?; pernex m [mistranslation of L pernix]; catching of ~s yltwist f; crop (of a ~) cropp m, croppa m; young ~ nest n brood

 

birth [] 1. cenning f parturition, ácennednes f, ácenning f; after-~ cildhama m; imperfect ~ lambyrd f; 2. of noble ~ adj æðelcund

 

birthday [] cennes f

 

birthplace [] cenningstów f

 

bit [] cáma m  [L] collar; ~ (of a bridle, bristling with points cenep m [ON kanpr]

 

bite into pieces [] sv/t1 ábítan gnaw

 

biting [] adj numol snappish; numol stinging

 

bitter [] make ~ or sour wv/t2 ábiterian, ábitrian embitter; turn ~ wv/i2 ábiterian, ábitrian

 

bittern [] cýta m kite; ? púr ?

 

black [] 1. coal-~ adj colsweart; 2. ~ centaury ísenhearde f knapweed

 

blackmail [] níedbád f exaction

 

blacksmith [] ísensmið m, ísenwyrhta m

 

blade [] gærswyrt f grass

 

blame [] 1. clearing from ~ lád f exculpation; 2. sv/t6, also wv/t1b léan, wv/t2 leahtrian1 accuse; 3. ~less adj leahtorléas faultless

 

blaming [] nǽting f

 

blandish [] irreg wv/t1b léasóleccan flatter

 

blanket [] tribute-~ gafolhwítel m tribute-whittle

 

blaspheme [] wv/t2 yfelsacian1, wv/t2 yfelsian1

 

blasphemer [] hierwend m, yfelsacend m

 

blasphemy [] hierwing f, yfelsacung f calumny, yfelsæc n?, yfelsung f

 

blast [] ǽðmm

 

bleach [] wv/t1a áblǽcan whiten

 

blemish [] áwierding f corruption; glemm m spot; ~ (in an object) fácen n fault

 

blind [] 1. adj ymeséne; 2. wv/t1b áblindan make blind; become ~ wv/i2 áblindian; make ~ wv/t1b áblindan blind

 

blinded [] adj áblend

 

blister [] pocc m pustule; ice-~ ísgeblǽd n

 

blood (man of royal ~) [] æðeling m nobleman

 

blood relation [] nýdmǽg1m, nýdmǽge1f cousin

 

blot out [] wv/t2 ádílegian, ádílgian, ádíligian destroy

 

blow [] 1. andslyht2m; 2. sv/t7 ábláwan blow away; wv/t1a pyffan puff, wv/t2 pyfian; sv/t7 ábláwan breathe; ~ an instrument wv/t1b plegan pipe; ~ away sv/t7 ábláwan breathe upon

 

blowing [] ábláwung f inflation

 

blowing fiercely (of flame) [] adj áblǽst

 

blunt [] wv/t1b ástyntan repress

 

blush [] wv/i2áblysian, wv/t2 áréodian redden

 

blushing [] áblysgung f, áblysung f shame

 

boast [] 1. gielpword n; 2. wv/t1b gealpettan

 

boaster [] gielpna m

 

boastfulness [] gealpettung f, gielpnes f

 

boasting [] empty ~ ídelgielp n vainglory

 

boat [] naca2m ship; small ~ ǽrendscip n skiff

 

bodily [] 1. adj líchamlic physical; 2. adv líchamlíce personally

 

bodily torment [] níedbád f

 

body [] líc n, lícfæt2n, limgesíð f; líchama m corpse; separation of soul and ~ gástgedál2n death; ~ of priests préosthéap m, préosthíred m

 

bog-myrtle [] gagel m? sweet gale

 

boil [] irreg v/t áwillan bring into commotion; sv/t2 áséoðan seethe, wv/i2 fámgian foam

 

boiled [] newly ~ adj nísoden

 

bold [] 1. adj cáf brave, cáflic, heardmód brave; céne, gárþríst daring; heardlic warlike; níðheard2 brave in battle; ~ in arms gárcéne bold in fight; ~ in fight gárcéne; 2. ~ly adv cáfe, cáflíce, céne brave, cénlíce; heardlíce in a warlike manner

 

boldness [] cáfscipe m alacrity, cénðu f, néðing f daring, nóð2f daring

 

bolt [] clús f, clúse f [L clausum] bar, loc n bar

 

bond [] internal ~ inbend m, f; iron ~ ísenbend2m, f fetter

 

bondage [] born in ~ adj ǽhtboren

 

bond-slave [] nýdþéwetling m

 

book [] ~ of canons canonbóc f; canonical ~s canones béc f pl [L canon]; Latin ~ lǽdenbóc f ~ of prescriptions lǽcebóc f; ~ of service for compline nihtsang m; ~ of the epistles pistolbóc f; ~s of the law ǽbéc f pl

 

booth  [] léafsele m place for shade

 

booty [] fang m plunder, lác n, f, herefeoh n, nóð2f plunder

 

border [] þerscold m, þerscwald m, þerscwold m, þerxold m, þerxwold m limit; northern ~ norðefes f

born [] adj geboren; ~ in bondage ǽhtboren; lawfully ~ ǽwumboren; low-~ ceorlboren not noble; new~ níwcend; ~ on the estate inbyrde

both [] 1. pron ǽghwæðer either; 2. ~…and  conj ǽghwæðer (ge)…ge, ǽgðer…and

bottom [] niðernes f deepness

bought [] adj áboht

 

bound [] 1. adj gebunden; 2. not to be ~ irreg v/t nágan not owe

 

boundary [] landgemǽre n, landgemirce n frontier, landmearc n; north-west ~ norðwestgemǽre m; ~ of ploughed land yrðmearc f, landscearu f landmark

 

boundless [] adj grundléaslic vast

 

bountiful [] adj gifol generous

 

bounty [] cystignes f, cystines f goodness, glædmódnes f kindness

 

bow [] wv/t1b ábégan bend down

bowed [] adj ábogen; ~ down ábéag
bowl [] læfel m basin[L labellum]

box [] cæpse f [L capsa]; iron ~ yrsebin f; money ~ gafolgyld n fiscus

 

boy [] cniht m youth

 

boyhood [] cnihthád m youth, cniht m

 

boyish [] adj cnihtlic childish

 

boyishness [] cnihtwíse f

 

branch [] clyster n bunch; lim n; palm-~ palm m, palma m, palmtwig n

 

brass [] ár n copper

 

brave [] 1. adj cáf bold, céne, heardmód bold, heardhicgende2; ~ in battle níðheard2 bold; 2. ~ly adv cáfe, céne, heardlíce stoutly

 

brave [] adj þegnlic noble; ~ly adv þegnlíce manfully

 

brawl in a house [] infiht n, insócn f

 

bray (in a mortar) [] wv/t2 portian1

 

brazen vessel [] árfæt n

 

breach [] gebryce m fracture; ~ of the law lahbryce m; ~ of the peace ǽhlýp m assault

 

break [] sv/t4 ábrecan break down; ~ away sv/i3 áberstan escape; ~ down sv/t4 ábrecan break to pieces; ~ into sv/t5 inbrecan; ~ out sv/i3 áberstan burst out, sv/i3 út áberstan; ~ out, away, forth sv/i4 ábrecan; ~ out in pimples wv/t2 piplian show eruptions; ~ to pieces sv/t7 ábéatan strike, sv/t4 ábrecan break down; ~ up wv/t1b gebrýtan destroy

 

breaking [] gebryce m fracture

 

breast [] feorhloca m, gástcofa m; innoð m, f inside, gástcofa m spirit’s chamber

 

breath [] ǽðmm air, gást m

 

breathe [] sv/t7 ábláwan blow; ~ out wv/t1a ápyffan exhale; ~ upon sv/t7 ábláwan blow away, sv/t7 inbláwan inspire

 

breathing [] ǽðmm breath, inéðung f inspiration; hardness of ~ nirewett n

 

brethren [] gebróðor m pl, gebróðra m pl, gebróðru m pl  brothers

 

brewed [] adj gebrowen

 

bribe [] endeavor to ~ wv/t2 céapian1

 

bridesmaid [] hádswǽpe f

 

bridesman [] hádswǽpa m

 

bridle [] 1. geweald n; 2. wv/t2 ámídlian, wv/t2 gebrídlian restrain

 

briefly [] adv nearolíce closely

 

bright [] 1. adj léoht luminous, léohtlic radiant; hádor2clear; perennially ~ géartorht; 2. ~ly adv léohte brilliantly; hádre clearly

 

brightness [] glǽm2m brilliance, líhtnes f, hádor n clearness

 

brilliance [] glǽm2m gleam

 

brilliancy [] fágnes f variety of color

 

brilliant [] 1. adj léohtbǽre luminous; 2. ~ly adv léohte  brightly

 

bring [] irreg wv/t1b bringan, sv/t4 niman1carry, wv/t1b lǽdan1take; irreg wv/t1b gebringan lead; ~ before one wv/t2 geandwerdian present; ~ forth wv/t1a cennan1conceive, wv/t2 gehrifian, wv/t1b lǽdan1 produce; ~ forward wv/t1b inlǽdan lead up; ~ in irreg wv/t1b inbrengan, inbringan present, irreg wv/t1b ingebringan, sv/t4 ináberan, wv/t1b inlǽdan lead in; ~ into commotion irreg v/t áwillan boil; ~ low wv/t1b ábýgan subdue, wv/t2 niðerian1 depress; ~ out wv/t1a yppan1disclose; ~ to light wv/t1b ábǽran disclose; ~ up well wv/t2 geþéawian

 

bringer [] lǽdend m; ~ of evil tidings yfelberend m

 

bringing up [] infóster n rearing

 

Bristol Channel [] norðsǽ f northern sea

 

broad [] adj géap spacious

 

broil [] ingerec n

 

broken [] adj gebrocen, ábrocen; ~ up gebrócod afflicted

 

brooch [] préon m pin

 

brood [] nest n young bird

 

broom [] ceacga m furze

 

brother monk [] gehada m

 

brotherhood [] gebróðorscipe m fraternity; member of a ~ of related persons gilda1m

 

brothers [] gebróðra m pl, gebróðru m pl brethren; ~ collectively gebróðor m pl

 

brothership [] gebróðorscipe m brotherhood

 

brought [] adj gebroht

bruise [] wv/t2 púnian1 beat

bruised [] adj gebrýsed

 

bruising [] gebrýsednes f

 

brutish [] adv níetenlic animal

 

brutishness [] níetennnes f

 

buckle [] clofe f, gyrdelhring m girdle, fifele f [L fibula]

 

buffet [] wv/t1a plættan smack

 

buffoon [] glíwere m parasite, léasere m jester

 

build [] wv/t1b átimbran, wv/t2 átimbrian erect; wv/t2 ástemnian found; ~ nests wvt1b nistan, wv/t2 nistian, wv/t1b nistlan, wv/t2 nistlian

 

builder []church-~ circwyrhta m; city ~ ceasterwyrhta m

 

building [] ærn n store; ancient ~ ǽrsceaft f

 

bulbous [] adj clufeht, clufehte

 

bunch [] clyster n cluster, cropp m, croppa m cluster; a ~ of berries léactrog m, léactroc m

 

burden [] handhæf n

 

burdock [] cliðe f

 

burghers [] ceasterwaran1m pl citizens

 

burial [] gebyrgednes f; ~ place legerstów f

 

burn [] sv/i3 ábeornan take fire

 

burning [] 1. adj glowende glowing; 2. lígbryne2m fire, ál n fire; inbærnednes f, inbærnes f incense

 

burst out [] sv/i3 áberstan break out

 

bush [] gebrogne n

 

bushel [] cýf f vat

 

business [] ǽbod m, cierr m affair, intinga m matter; níed f errand

 

busy [] wv/t2 ábisgian occupy; be ~ with wv/t2 ábisgian engage in; ~ oneself wv/t1b plegan occupy oneself; ~ oneself with wv/t2 geimpian

 

but [] 1. conj ac, and; ~ also ac moreover; 2. adv gefæstlíce verily

 

butt [] wv/t2 potian goad

 

butter [] cúbutere f

buy [] wv/t1b cýpan1 barter, wv/t2 céapian1 

 

by [] 1. prep w.d., rarely a. æt (instrumental); prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) near; 2. adv ymb utan; ~ that (person or thing) þǽrbig, þǽrbie thereby

 

by no means [] adv náteshwón, náteþæshwón not at all

 

bystander [] ymbstandend m


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