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Modern English - Old English (Anglo Saxon) Dictionary I-J


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I [] 1. name of the rune ~ ís n; 2. pron ic; gen mín; dat mé; acc méc; 3. adv not ~ nic, nicc, = no

 

ice [] 1. ís n; ~-blister ísgeblǽd n; fetters of ~ ísgebind n; 2. covered with ~ adj ísig icy

 

ichneumon [] nǽderbita m

 

icicle [] cielegicel2m

 

icy [] 1. adj ísig, ísiht covered with ice; ~ cold ísceald2; 2. ~ lake ísmere m

 

idle [] 1. adj ídel unemployed; ídelgeorn slothful, ǽswind slothful; ídellic vain; 2. ~ly ídellíce vainly; 3. lie ~ sv/i5 ætlicgan

 

idleness [] ídel n frivolity, ídelnes f vain existence, áswundennes f

 

idol [] ídol n [L], godgield n heathen god; offering to an ~ ídelgildoffrung f

 

idolatrous [] adj hearglic

 

idolatry [] ídelgild n vain worship

 

if [] 1. interrog part. ac (in a direct interrogation, where there is no corresponding term in English); 2. like as ~… conj gelíce and …

 

ignominious [] adj geniðred, genyðred

 

ignominy [] nytennes f ignorance

 

ignorance [] nytennes f ignominy

 

ignorant [] 1. adj nyten, nytenlic; 2. ~ly adv nytende; 3. be ~ irreg v/t nytan not to know

 

ill [] 1. adj yfel (cmp wiersa, spl wiersta, wierresta, weorsta); legerbǽre sick,legerfæst sick; áléwed weak; ~ in the liver liferséoc; 2. yfel n evil; 3. adv coðlíce; yfle (cmp wiers/wyrs, spl wierrest/wyrrest/wyrst) badly

 

ill deed [] yfeldǽd f injury

 

ill ? [] adj geléwed weak

 

ill-conditioned [] adj þéawléas ill-mannered

 

ill-disposed [] adj níðful evil

 

ill-mannered [] adj þéawléas ill-conditioned

 

illness [] ádlung f, leger n lying

 

illuminate [] wv/t1b inlíhtan1 enlighten; sv/t7 geondbláwan inspire; wv/t1b líhtan shine, wv/t2 léohtian give light

 

illumination [] inlíhtnes f, líhtung f light

 

illuminator [] inlíhtend m

 

image of a god [] God m god

 

imbibe [] sv/t3 indrincan drink

 

imitate [] irreg wv/t1b geǽfenlǽcan, wv/t2 æfterhyrigan

 

imitation [] gelícbisnung f

 

imitator [] æfenlǽcend m

 

immediately [] adv instede, ísíðes, nú now

 

immerse [] sv/t6 áwascan bathe

 

imp [] wv/t2 impian implant

 

impede [] wv/t1b lettan1 hinder

 

impel [] wv/t2 néadian1 force

 

imperfect birth [] lambyrd f

 

imperial [] 1. adj cáserlic; 2. ~ sway cáserdóm m; ~ treasury gafolgyld

 

imperil [] wv/t1b plihtan compromise

 

impious [] adj godscyldig; lahbrecende profane

 

implant [] wv/t2 impian graft

 

implanted [] adj ingeweaxen

 

implement [] weaving ~ crancstæf m crank

 

implore [] wv/t2 áhalsian

 

importance [] of little ~ adj léohtlic light

 

important to one’s estimation [] adj inméde close to one’s heart

 

impose necessity [] wv/t2 geþearfian

 

impound [] wv/t1b gepyndan shut up

 

imprint (a footstep) [] wv/t1a ástæppan

improve [] wv/t2 geæðelian2 render excellent

impudence [] nebwlátung f

 

impudent [] adj héafodbald

 

in [] 1. prep w.d. or a. (local) in to, prep w.g.d.a. innan, prep w.d.a. intó  into; prep w.d. or a. (temporal) in at; prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local, temporal); prep w.i. (purpose) in to; 2. adv inn inwards, innan inside, inne inside

 

inasmuch as [] conj because

 

inattention [] ídel n carelessness

 

incantation [] 1. galdor n spell, galdorcræft m occult art, galdorcwide m magic saying, galdorléoð n spell, galdorsang m, galung f; word of ~ galdorword n magic word; 2. practice ~ sv/t6 galan1 sing charms

 

incarnate [] adj geflǽschamod, geflǽscod, gelíchamod

 

incarnation [] inflaescnes f, inlíchomung f

 

incense [] inbærnednes f, inbærnes f frankincense, inrécels n

 

incentive [] átending f

 

inch [] ynce m

 

incitement [] áwecenes f

 

inciter to evil [] yfeltihtend m

 

inciting to evil [] adj yfeltihtende

 

inclination [] gehwyrfednes f, gehwyrfenes f

 

inclined [] adj capiende sloping; ~ to w.d. gehange disposed

 

include [] wv/t2 geinnian, wv/t3 ymbhabban contain

 

incoming [] infæreld n entrance

 

inconsiderable [] adj gewealden small, léoht trifling

 

inconsiderately [] adv léohtlíce

 

inconstancy [] léohtmódnes f frivolity

 

inconstant [] adj lǽne temporary

 

incorporeal [] adj líchamléas

 

increase [] 1. ætýcnes f; 2. wv/t1b íecan1augment; wv/t1b ætýcan add to

 

increased [] adj geácnod

 

incubus [] ælf m, f goblin

 

inculcate [] sv/t5 inbecweðan

 

incursion [] infaru f inroad

 

indecent [] adj ǽwisc shameless [Goth aiwisks]

 

indeed [] interj

 

indefatigably [] adj áblinnendlíce

 

indefinite [] pronoun, participle prefix á-

 

index-finger [] léawfinger m forefinger

 

Indian [] adj Indisc

 

indicate [] sv/t7 ingefeallan point out

 

indiction [] gebanngéar n, ~ (cycle of 15 years) gebann n; year of the ~ gebanngéar n

 

indigenous [] adj inboren native, inlende, inlendisc native

 

indigent [] adj þearfende needy

 

indignation [] ábylgnes f anger

 

individual [] 1. adj ánlíepig, ánlípig, ánlípe, ánlípie solitary; 2. ~ly adv namcúðlíce by name

 

indolent [] 1. ~ (of the mind) adj capiende negligent; 2. wv/t2 latian1 be slow

 

indoor work [] inweorc n

 

indoors [] adv inne inside

 

industrious [] adj notgeorn

 

inevitableness [] níed f

 

inexperienced [] adj níwe untried

 

infamous [] adj ǽwisclic disgraceful

 

infant [] 1. adj cildgeong youthful; 2. cild n child, lýtling m child

 

inferior [] adj niðerlic lowly

 

inferiority [] æftergengnes f

 

infirmity [] ádl f disease, áléfednes f

 

inflame [] sv/t7 gebláwan kindle, wv/t1b inhǽtan

 

inflate [] sv/t7 inbláwan puff up, wv/t1b geblǽdan puff up

 

inflation [] ábláwnes f, ábláwung f swelling

 

inflict evil [] wv/t2 yfelian1 hurt

 

inform [] sv/t7 ingefeallan disclose

 

infringement [] gebryce m breach

 

infuse [] wv/t1b indaelan

 

infusion [] ingyte m pouring in

 

ing [] suffix, as in earming, lytling (originally patronymic)

 

ingenious [] adj geþancful clever, þancsnotor2, þancsnottor2wise

 

ingress [] infær n entrance, ingang m entrance

 

inhabit [] irreg v/t w.a. gebúan occupy, irreg v/t inbúan1, wv/t2 geondeardian, wv/t2 ineardian dwell in

 

inhabitant [] inbúend m, landbúend m native; ~s landwaru f population; ~s of (North) Wales Norðwéalcynn n

 

inhabited [] adj gebún

 

inherit [] wv/t2 ierfian possess, wv/t1b yrfan, wv/t2 yrfeweardian1

 

inheritance [] yrfeláf f bequest; dispute about an ~ yrfeflit n; division of an ~ yrfegedál n

 

inherited land [] yrfeland n

 

inimically [] adv láðe in detestation

 

initiated [] newly ~ adj nílǽred

 

injunction of the law [] ǽbebod n command

 

injure [] wv/t1b átǽsan strike, wv/t1b nǽtan1afflict, wv/t2 geǽwierdlian, wv/t2 yfelian1 wrong

 

injured [] adj gebrócod afflicted

 

injury [] clacu f, æfwyrdelsa m damage, æfwyrdla m damage; gyrnstafas m pl affliction, láð n harm, lǽw f, leahtor m disease; yfeldǽd f ill deed, yflung f, anda m mischief; fine for ~ or loss æfwyrdla m; revenge for ~ gyrnwracu2f

 

inland [] services due to the lord on his ~ inwaru f

 

inmost [] adj innemest most intimate

 

inner [] 1. adj innera, innra, inra interior [cmp of in, inna]; innancund internal, inweard internal, inweardlic; 2. adv innor

 

innocent [] adj clǽne chaste; láðléas inoffensive

 

Innocents’ Day [] Cildamæssedæg m (Dec 28) Childermas

 

inoffensive [] adj láðléas innocent

 

in-pouring [] ingéoting f

 

inquire into [] wv/t2 æfterspyrian examine

 

inquiry [] 1. geáscung f asking; 2. find out by ~ sv/t5 gefricgan learn

 

inroad [] infaru f incursion

 

insatiable [] adj gítsiendlic

 

inscription [] inwritting f, ináwrittung f

 

insert [] sv/t3 crimman1 put in

 

inserted [] adj ingeseted placed in

 

inside [] 1. adv inne indoors; innan within; ~ of inn within; 2. innoð m, f entrails

 

insignificance [] gehwǽdnes f smallness

 

insinuate [] sv/t6 áspanan urge

 

insipid [] adj ǽmelle

 

inspect [] wv/t1b néosan, wv/t2 néosian search out

 

inspection [] inscéawung f view

 

inspector [] inscéawere m

 

inspiration [] inéðung f breathing, ingyte m infusion

 

inspire [] sv/t7 geondbláwan illuminate, sv/t7 inbláwan breathe upon

 

inspired [] adj áblǽst furious

 

instability [] léasmódnes f

 

instant [] 1. handhwíl f; 2. ~ly  adv ǽdre at once

 

instigation [] lár f advice

 

instigation [] pútung f

 

institute [] 1. ásetnes f law; 2. wv/t1a ástellan establish, wv/t1a insettan

 

institution [] inseten f

 

instruct [] wv/t1b gelǽran teach, wv/t1b lǽran1teach

 

instruction [] lárdóm m teaching, láréowdóm m function of a teacher; láttéowdóm m guidance

 

instructress [] lǽrestre f

 

instrument [] cræft m machine; iron ~ ísen n, ísengelóma m weapon; wind ~ pípe f [L]; ~ of torture pínungtól n, léad n

 

insufficiency [] gelýtlung f want

 

insult [] æfðanc m, æfðanca m offence; láð n annoyance

 

intellect [] andgiet n, andgiete f understanding, gearowita m understanding

 

intellectual [] adj clǽne sagacious

 

intelligent [] 1. adj andgitol, andgietful sensible, cyrten, gerádod; 2. ~ly adv gerádlíce clearly, cyrtenlíce intelligently

 

intelligible [] 1. adj andgietfullic clear; 2. ~ly adv andgietfullíce

 

intend [] irreg wv/t1b áðencan

 

intent [] evil ~ níðhete2m hostility; hostile ~ inwitþanc2m evil thought

 

intention [] 1. anginn n design, gerád n; ingehygd f, ingehýd f, ingehíd f meaning, ingehygdnes f; ingeþanc m, n thought; 2. ~ally adv (his) gewealdes

 

intercede [] wv/t2 ǽrendian1 , wv/t2 geǽrendian go on an errand

 

intercept [] wv/t1b áræfsan

 

intercourse [] gaderwist1f companionship

 

interest [] gafol n usury

 

interior [] 1. adj inlic, incund internal; innera, innra, inra inner; 2. ~ly adv incundlíce; 3. infæreld n

 

interlock [] sv/i2 lúcan intertwine

 

internal [] 1. adj incund interior, secret; inlic interior; inweardlic, innancund inward, inweard inward; 2. ~ly adv inlíce, incundlíce

 

interpret [] irreg wv/t1b átellan explain; sv/t7 árǽdan prophesy

 

interpretation [] intrahtnung f

 

interpreter [] latimer m

 

intertwine [] sv/i2 lúcan twist

 

interval [] ginnes f gap

 

intestinal worm [] innanwyrm m, inwyrm m

 

intestine [] þearm m entrail

 

intimate [] adj néahfeald, néahfealdlic; most ~ innemest closest

 

into [] 1. prep w.d. or a. (local) in in, prep w.d.a. into in, prep w.d., rarely a. æt (local) toward, prep w.g.d.a. innan prep w.a.? inn on; 2. adv inn inwards, inn on

 

intrigue [] artful ~ inwitsearu n

 

intrinsic [] adj inweard deep

 

introduce [] wv/t1b inlǽdan bring in

 

intruder [] ingenga m visitor

 

inundation [] ýðung f

 

invade [] sv/t7 inswógan

 

invariable [] 1. adj ánfald, ánfeald, ánfealdlic fixed; 2. adv ~ly ánfaldlíce, ánfealdlíce

 

invent [] irreg wv/t1b áðencan devise

 

invest [] sv/t5 ymbsittan besiege

 

investigate [] wv/t2 áscrútnian examine, wv/t2 áswaðian

 

investigation [] fandung f trial

 

investigator [] áspyrgend m

 

invitation [] laðung1f calling

 

invite [] wv/t2 inlaðian, wv/t2 ingelaðian, wv/t2 laðian call upon

 

inviter [] inlaðigend m

 

invocation [] cígung1f calling, incégung f, gecígnes f calling, gecígung f calling

 

invoke [] wv/t1b cíegan summon, wv/t2 namnian name, wv/t1b ingecígan, ingecégan call upon, wv/t1b nemnan, wv/t2 nemnian

 

involuntary agent [] nýdwyrhta m

 

inward [] 1. adj inlic, incund internal, innancund, innecund, inweard; 2. ~ly adv inlíce, incundlíce, inn, inweardlíce; ~s inn into

 

inward part [] piða m pith; ~s inweard noun

 

io [] name of the rune for ~ íor m

 

iris [] læfer f reed

 

irksome [] adj áþrotsum

 

iron [] 1. adj ísen; ~-clad ísnod; ~-gray ísengrǽg; ~-hard ísenheard; of ~ ísen; with ~ fittings ísenhyrst; 2. ísen n; ~ bond ísenbend2m, f fetter; ~ box yrsebin f; ~ chariot nægledcræt n; ~-clad army ísenhere m; ~-clad troop ísenþréat m; ~ corselet ísenbyrne f; dross of ~? ísenswát? m; ~ fetter ísenfetor f; goad-~ gádírenn, gádísenn goad; ~-hard ísenhearde f black centaury; ~ helmet ísenhelm m; ~ instrument ísen n, ísengelóma m weapon; ~ mine ísenóre f, ísengræf m; ordeal by ~ ísenordál n; ordeal of red-hot ~ ísen n; ~ shovel ísenscofl f; ~ weapon ísen2n sword; 3. cover with ~ wv/t2 ísnian1

 

irrigated [] adj þán moist

 

irritate [] sv/t3 ábelgan offend, wv/t1b ábylgan, ábyligan provoke, wv/t2 iersian1enrage

 

irritation [] ábolgennes f

 

is not [] verb form nis

 

island [] íeg f, íegland n; ~er íegbúend m; neighboring ~ néahéaland n; small ~ iggað m, iggoð m, ígeoð m, ígoð m eyot

 

ivy [] 1. ífig n; ~-bark ífigrind f; cluster of ~-berries ífigcrop m, ífigcroppa m; ~-grove ífigbearu m; ~-leaf ífigléaf n; ~-tar ífigtearu n, ífigtara n resin from tar; ~-twig ífigtwig n; 2. adj ~-colored ífiht

 

 

 

J

 

 

 

jacinth [] íacinctus m, íacintus m [L hyacinthus]

 

jail [] carcærn n, carcern n [L carcer] prison

 

jailor [] cǽgbora m key-bearer, carcernweard m

 

jar [] night-~ nihthræfn m, nihthrefn m, nihthremn m night-raven

 

jasper []geaspis m?

 

jaundice [] gealádl f gall-disease

 

javelin [] gár2m spear, pǽl m, píl m arrow [L pilum], gafeluc m spear; wood or handle of a ~ gárbéam m spear-shaft; ~-bearer gárberend2m soldier

 

jaw [] céace f cheek, céacbán n cheekbone; ~s geaflas2m pl; disease of the ~s ceafládl f; swelling of the ~s géagiswile m

 

jaw-ache [] céacádl f

 

jawbone [] céace f cheek

 

jealous [] 1. adj andig envious; 2. ~y ǽmynd f, andung f; 3. be envious or ~ wv/i2 andian

 

jeering [] canc1n scorn

 

jest [] wv/t1a gabban mock

 

jester [] léasere m fool

 

jesting [] 1. adj glíwlic mimic; 2. gabbung f mocking; gamenungf pastime

 

jet [] gagátes m indecl, gagátstán m precious stone

 

jewel [] gærsum m, n, f costly gift

 

Jewish [] adj Iúdéisc

 

Jews (the ~) [] Iúdéas m pl

 

jocose [] adj gálsmǽre facetious

 

jocular [] adj plegol playful

 

join [] wv/t1b gadertengan continue; wv/t1b gelíman cement, wv/t2 gefangian, wv/t1b áfégan; ~ with wv/t1b geǽnan unite oneself to

 

joining [] gaderung1f assembly

 

joints of the spine [] gelyndu n pl

 

joke [] wv/t2 gamenian pun

 

jot [] pricel m, pricels m tittle

 

journey [] 1. gang m going, ýting f outing; lád f course; compulsory ~ níedfaru f death; merry ~ gamenwáðf joyous path; painful ~ láðsíð m death; ~ round ymbfær n circuit, ymbfæreld n, m circuit; merry ~ gamenwáðf; painful ~ carsíð m; 2. wv/i1b lástas lecgan go; ~ around wv/t1b ymbféran go about

 

joy [] gamenn mirth/ pastime, glædnes f gladness, glædscipe m gladness; geféanes f, glíwstæf m melody; liss f peace [formerly líðs]; vain ~ ídelbliss f

 

joyfulness [] gefeohtsumnes f

 

joyous [] adj glædmód cheerful

 

judge (wicked ~) [] yfeldéma m

 

jug [] céac m pitcher; a ~ full céacfull 

 

juice (plum ~) [] plúmséaw n

 

July [] Gíuling m, Giúluling m

 

jump [] sv/t7 lácan leap

 

junction of roads [] gelǽte n [ON lǽti]

 

junior member of a guild [] cniht m

 

junior warriors (as opposed to duguð) [] geoguð f

 

juniper [] cwicbéam m aspen

 

jurisdiction [] abbatial ~ abboddóm m abbacy

 

just before [] adv hwéne ǽr

 

just now [] adv ǽrost first of all

 

justification [] geléfenscipe m, gelíefenscipe m; abbatial ~ abboddóm m; ~ or office of an abbot (used even of a convent of nuns) [] abbodríce n abbey

 

justify [] wv/t2 w.g. or a. clǽnsian clear oneself

 

Jutes [] the ~ Iotas m pl


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